Set Up MariaDB Clusters with Galera Debian and Ubuntu

Updated by Linode

Contribute on GitHub

View Project | View File | Edit File

MariaDB replication with Galera adds redundancy for a site’s database. With database replication, multiple servers act as a database cluster. Database clustering is particularly useful for high availability website configurations. This guide uses three separate Linodes to configure database replication, each with private IPv4 addresses on Debian and Ubuntu.

Note
Communication between nodes are unecrypted. This guide assumes that your Linodes are each configured with a Private IP Address and located within the same data center.

Additionally:

  • Since Galera uses synchronous replication, performance is as fast as the slowest node.
  • MariaDB 10.0 has an end of life on March 2019. Installation of MariaDB 10.1 and above is recommended.

Install Required Packages

  1. To install the required packages, first add the keys for the Galera repository. Note that the key may change depending on distribution and MariaDB version. This guide will use MariaDB 10.1 on Ubuntu 16.04 as an example. Failure to use the correct key and repository list combination has been known to install MariaDB 10.0 by default.

    sudo apt install software-properties-common
    sudo apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 0xF1656F24C74CD1D8
    
    Note
    On Debian 9 and later, run sudo apt install dirmngr before importing the key.
  2. Add the repository substituting the version and distribution for your environment:

    sudo add-apt-repository 'deb [arch=amd64,i386,ppc64el] http://mirror.nodesdirect.com/mariadb/repo/10.1/ubuntu xenial main'
    
    DistributionKeyVersionRepository List
    Debian 90xF1656F24C74CD1D810.1deb [arch=amd64,i386,ppc64el] http://mirror.nodesdirect.com/mariadb/repo/10.1/debian stretch main
    Debian 80xcbcb082a1bb943db10.0deb [arch=amd64,i386,ppc64el] http://mirror.nodesdirect.com/mariadb/repo/10.0/debian jessie main
    Ubuntu 16.040xF1656F24C74CD1D810.1deb [arch=amd64,i386,ppc64el] http://mirror.nodesdirect.com/mariadb/repo/10.1/ubuntu xenial main
    Ubuntu 16.040xF1656F24C74CD1D810.0deb [arch=amd64,i386,ppc64el] http://mirror.nodesdirect.com/mariadb/repo/10.1/ubuntu xenial main

    There may not be a released version for each distribution. e.g. Debian 8 has version 10.0 and 10.1 whereas Debian 9 has only 10.1 available. To see all available distributions, visit the MariaDB reporsitory download page.

  3. Install MariaDB, Galera, and Rsync:

    • Recommended - MariaDB 10.1 and above:

      sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y rsync mariadb-server
      
    • MariaDB 10.0:

      sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y rsync galera mariadb-galera-server
      

Configuring Galera

  1. Create the file /etc/mysql/conf.d/galera.cnf on each of the Linodes with the following content. Replace the IP addresses in the wsrep_cluster_address section with the private IP addresses of each of the Linodes:

    /etc/mysql/conf.d/galera.cnf
     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314151617
    [mysqld]
    #mysql settings
    binlog_format=ROW
    default-storage-engine=innodb
    innodb_autoinc_lock_mode=2
    query_cache_size=0
    query_cache_type=0
    bind-address=0.0.0.0
    
    #galera settings
    wsrep_on=ON
    wsrep_provider=/usr/lib/galera/libgalera_smm.so
    wsrep_cluster_name="my_wsrep_cluster"
    wsrep_cluster_address="gcomm://192.168.1.1,192.168.1.2,192.168.1.3"
    wsrep_node_address="192.168.1.1"
    wsrep_node_name="node_1"
    wsrep_sst_method=rsync
  2. Reboot both of your non-primary servers in the cluster to enable the new galera.cnf file settings.

  3. Stop the MariaDB service on each Linode after installation:

    sudo service mysql stop
    
  4. Restart the MariaDB service on the primary Linode, with the --wsrep-new-cluster flag:

    sudo mysqld --wsrep-new-cluster
    
  5. Confirm that the cluster has started by opening the MariaDB monitor:

    $ mysql -u root -p
    Enter password:
    Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
    Your MariaDB connection id is 6
    Server version: 10.1.29-MariaDB-1~xenial mariadb.org binary distribution
    
    Copyright (c) 2000, 2017, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.
    
    Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
    
    MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW STATUS LIKE 'wsrep_cluster_%';
    

    Alternatively, this can be run inline as a statement:

    $ mysql -u root -p -e "SHOW STATUS LIKE 'wsrep_cluster_%'"
    Enter password:
    +--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Variable_name            | Value                                |
    +--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | wsrep_cluster_conf_id    | 1                                    |
    | wsrep_cluster_size       | 1                                    |
    | wsrep_cluster_state_uuid | 8534672c-d39a-11e7-814b-aba9f331bda4 |
    | wsrep_cluster_status     | Primary                              |
    +--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    
  6. Start the MariaDB service on the other two Linodes.

    sudo service mysql start
    

    Re-run the command from step 5 to ensure that each system has joined the cluster:

    +--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | Variable_name            | Value                                |
    +--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    | wsrep_cluster_conf_id    | 3                                    |
    | wsrep_cluster_size       | 3                                    |
    | wsrep_cluster_state_uuid | 8534672c-d39a-11e7-814b-aba9f331bda4 |
    | wsrep_cluster_status     | Primary                              |
    +--------------------------+--------------------------------------+
    
  7. To prevent repeated errors on startup, copy the /etc/mysql/debian.cnf file from your primary Linode in the cluster to each of your other Linodes, overwriting the existing copies.

  8. Reboot both of your secondary Linodes to apply the new debian.cnf settings.

Firewall Settings

Communication between nodes are unencrypted. Even if using a private IP, this information is potentially open within the data center.

  1. Enable UFW.

    sudo ufw enable
    
  2. There are four ports to secure. Repeat for each connection as necessary.

    sudo ufw allow from 192.168.1.1 to any port 3306,4567,4568,4444 proto tcp
    sudo ufw allow from 192.168.1.1 to any port 3306,4567,4568,4444 proto udp
    

    Purpose of each port:

Test Database Replication

  1. Log in to MariaDB on each of the Linodes:

    mysql -u root -p
    
  2. Create a test database and insert a row on your primary Linode:

    create database test;
    create table test.flowers (`id` varchar(10));
    
  3. From each of the other servers, list the tables in your test database:

    show tables in test;
    

    You should receive an output of the database and row that you created in the previous step:

    MariaDB [(none)]> show tables in test;
    +----------------+
    | Tables_in_test |
    +----------------+
    | flowers        |
    +----------------+
    1 row in set (0.00 sec)
    

Congratulations, you have now configured a MariaDB cluster with Galera.

More Information

You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.

See Also

comments powered by Disqus

This guide is published under a CC BY-ND 4.0 license.