Boolean Variables, Operators, and Conditional Statements in Python
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Boolean logic is at the heart of Python and most programming languages. It allows programmers to make comparisons, execute conditional statements, and implement common algorithms. The “greater than” (
>) and “equals to” (
==) symbols are examples of Python comparison operators, while
or are some of Python’s logical operators. This tutorial explains Boolean logic and expressions and discusses how to use Python’s Boolean operators.
A Boolean data type can have one of two Boolean values, “true” or “false”. These values are sometimes represented by the binary digits “1” and “0”. “True” is equivalent to “1” or “on”, while “False” aligns with “0” and “off”. Boolean values are named after the mathematician George Boole, who pioneered the system of logical algebra. Because it is named after a person, the word “Boolean” is always capitalized.
Wherever it appears as an adjective, Boolean indicates a binary true/false attribute. The item being discussed is either on or off, not both, and not some other value. So a Boolean circuit has binary logic gates, and in Boolean algebra, the variables are restricted to the two truth values. In terms of programming, the most useful Boolean concept is the Boolean expression. A Boolean expression results in a Boolean value when it is evaluated. It can be composed of Boolean values, operators, or functions. Most people understand this intuitively.
2 + 2 = 4 is true, while
2 + 2 = 5 is false. Boolean logic and Boolean expressions are more rigorous expansions of this concept.
Python uses a built-in data type named
bool to represent Boolean values. The
bool type inherits its properties from the
int type. Through an odd quirk of language design,
bool is not a built-in value and can be redefined, although this is a very bad idea. A Python
bool variable has two possible values,
False. In Python 3, these values actually are Python keywords and are capitalized. Therefore, they cannot be used as variables and cannot be assigned different values.
False can be assigned to any variable, which then becomes a
bool. Python expands this concept to numerical values and other data types. A non-zero integer is
0 evaluates to
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Python supplies a complete selection of Boolean operators for use in Boolean expressions. These operators allow an expression to be evaluated as either
False, permitting the result to be used in conditional statements and other control structures. There are two main types of Boolean operators in Python.
- Comparison Operators: Python comparison operators compare two values of the same type and return a Boolean value of
- Logical Operators: Python logical operators combine the results of other expressions and return
In addition to the comparison and logical operators, Python has a
bool type. Any variable assigned the value of
False has a type of
bool. It is possible to confirm the type of a variable using the built-in
a = True type(a)
If “True” is enclosed in quotes, then it is a string containing the character sequence “True”.
a = "True" type(a)
Variables can be converted to a different type when they are assigned a new value. This is known as implicit type conversion.
a = "True" type(a)
a = True type(a)
bool function lets programmers evaluate any variable, expression, or object as a Boolean value. This function always returns
False. Python uses its own set of rules to determine the truth value of a variable. Some of the less obvious rules guiding whether something is
False are included in the list below. Consult the Python documentation for the bool function for more information.
- A positive or negative integer or real number of any size is always
True. The values
- Rounding errors resulting from mathematical operations on real numbers can cause confusing or misleading results. Even if the variable “should” be zero, rounding operations could mean it holds a very small non-zero value. This would evaluate as
- An empty string, list, set, or dictionary evaluates to
False. Non-empty strings or data structures are
- The special Python value
- The special numbers
NaN(for undefined or non-representable values) are all
- A function is always
A non-zero integer is always
a = 1 print(bool(a))
An integer with a value of
b = 0 print(bool(b))
Python comparison operators compare two items, but they can only be used on items that are comparable. For instance, two integers can be compared for equality, as can two strings. But two items with different types, such as an integer and a string, cannot be compared. If such comparisons are attempted, an error similar to
TypeError: '<' not supported between instances of 'int' and 'str' is returned. The items being compared can be either constants or variables.
There are several different comparison operators, which typically return Boolean values. Not all operators make sense for all types. The most common of these operators include:
==: The “equal to” operator.
!=: The “not equal to” operator.
<: The “less than” operator.
>: The “greater than” operator.
<=: The “less than or equal to” operator.
>=: The “greater than or equal to” operator.
Some of these operators are mirror images to one another and some are a convenient shorthand for an operation that would otherwise require two comparisons.
== operator tests for equality.
x == y returns
True if the values of
y are equal or if they refer to the same object. The equality operator can be used on most types. Two strings are equal if they both contain the same sequence of characters in the same order. Two built-in collections, such as lists, are equal if they have the same type, the same length, and each corresponding element is equal. The typing restriction means a list can never be equal to a set, even if both collections contain the exact same elements.
!= operator is used to determine whether two elements are unequal.
x != y returns
y have different values or reference different objects. Lists and Sets are different if they have different types or lengths, or if the corresponding elements at any position are different. All equality operators are symmetric. If
x == y is
y == x is also
True. The same relationship holds for
x != y.
For more information, see the Python Documentation on Value Comparisons.
The example below demonstrates how the
== operator can be used to test
b for equality. Because the two items are indeed equal, Python returns
=with the equality operator
==. Substituting the
=operator in place of the
==leads to strange and misleading bugs.
a = 4 b = 4 print(a == b)
If the same two variables are tested for inequality, Python returns a Boolean value of
print(a != b)
The two items being compared do not have to be variables. A variable can be compared to a hard-coded constant. In this case,
a is equal to
4, so the comparison is
print(a == 5)
Strings must be identical in case and length to be considered equal in Python. The string
Linode is not the same as
a = "Linode" b = "linode" c = "linode" print(a == b)
print(b == c)
These operators can also test collections for equivalence. In this case,
list1 has the same values as
list3, but is different from
list2, which has a different length. So
list1 == list3 returns
list1 == list2 is
list1 = [1, 2, 3] list2 = [1, 2, 3, 4] list3 = [1, 2, 3] print(list1 == list3)
print(list1 == list2)
< operator stands for “Less Than”. The comparison
a < b returns
True only in the case where
a is less than
b. Likewise, the “Greater Than” comparison is symbolized by the
a > b returns
True if the first item has a larger value. These two comparison operators are symmetric. In other words,
a < b implies
b > a.
When these operators are used on strings, the strings are evaluated based on the ASCII values of the letters. This maps to alphabetical order within either upper or lower case. However, capital letters have smaller ASCII values than their lower case counterparts. So a string beginning with a capital letter is always “less than” a lower case one.
Not all types and objects can be compared using these operators. In some other cases, the comparisons might be non-intuitive. For example, when these operators are used to compare lists, they make a decision based on the first unequal list elements. This might not be the behavior you want.
To test whether
a is greater than
b, use the
a = 5 b = 3 print(a > b)
< comparison to determine whether
a is less than
a = 5 b = 3 print(a < b)
The same comparisons can be done on strings. The string
linode is considered to be less than
system because “l” comes before “s” in the alphabet.
Linode is also less than
linode is not less than
System because capitalized characters have a lower value.
a = "linode" b = "system" c = "Linode" d = "System" print(a < b)
print(c < d)
print(a < d)
>= operators add a test for equality to the
a <= b is
True if either
a < b or
a == b is
True. Meanwhile, if either
a > b or
a == b is
a >= b is also
True. The same rules used to measure equality or make comparisons with the different types apply here as well.
The following example explains how the
<= comparison works in practice. The
>= operator works similarly.
a = 5 b = 3 print(a <= b)
a = 3 print(a <= b)
Python’s logical operators are used to evaluate Boolean expressions. They perform simple Boolean arithmetic on one or two inputs and return either
False. Logical operators can be chained together to form even longer expressions.
The logic of each operator can be demonstrated using a Truth Table. The truth table for a given operation lists the output for each possible combination of inputs. It is used to analyze Boolean functions in an easy-to-understand format. Boolean expressions can be created in Python from the three main logical operators.
and: This is the Python “logical and” operator. It returns
Trueif both expressions are
or: The Python “logical or” operator returns
Trueif either expression is
not: Python’s “logical not” operator returns
Trueonly if the expression it is evaluating is
and operator verifies whether both expressions are
True. The expression
a and b evaluate to
True only in the case where
b is also
b are usually both expressions as well. They are sometimes known as inner expressions. The inner expressions are evaluated first and become the inputs to the main logical expression.
A simple truth table can express how
a and b are calculated given different values of
b. The table below displays the result of
a and b for each of the four possible combinations.
|a||and||b||a and b|
and operator is frequently used between two comparison operators, but
b can take the form of any expression that evaluates to a Boolean value. Here is an example illustrating how the
and operator is used. Because
a is equal to
c is equal to
d, the result of the
and operation is
True. After the value of
b changes, it is no longer equal to
a == b is now
False, and therefore the result of the whole
and operation is
a = 3 b = 3 c = 4 d = 4 print((a == b) and (c == d))
b = 4 print((a == b) and (c == d))
For the result of an
or operator to be
True, one or both of the expressions must be
or operator uses “inclusive or” logic. Therefore
a or b is
True, or if both
b are both determined to be
a or b is
The following truth table demonstrates how the result of the
or operation changes with different inputs.
|a||or||b||a or b|
True. Certain Python libraries provide this function. A “xor” function can also be derived from the other operators.
a = 3 b = 3 c = 4 d = 5 print((a == b) or (c == d))
b = 4 print((a == b) or (c == d))
not operator is the easiest operator to understand. It accepts one Boolean expression and returns the opposite Boolean value. The expression
not a is
True. The truth table for
not is extremely simple.
The following examples demonstrate how to use the
not operator. They take advantage of the fact that a non-zero integer evaluates to
True, while zero is
not a is
False. But when
a is set to
not a becomes
a = 3 print(not(a))
a = 0 print(not(a))
orexpression, Python can return
Trueas soon as any expression evaluates to
True. This guarantees the
Trueno matter what the second argument is. This optimization speeds up execution. Unfortunately, it can also lead to subtle bugs, such as crashes that only occur when the second clause is evaluated.
Do not confuse the Python logical operators with the bitwise operators. These operators perform logical operations on the individual bits of two numbers or two-bit fields. The “bitwise and” operator is
&. It evaluates to
1 if both bits are set to
1. They are often used to mask out, or ignore certain values. Here is a list of all of the bitwise operators.
&: Bitwise and.
|: Bitwise or.
^: Bitwise xor. It evaluates to
Trueif exactly one of the two bits is
~: Bitwise not. This operator is used to negate each bit for the purpose of “bit flipping”.
There are a couple of other logical operators that are useful in certain circumstances. The
is operator is used to confirm whether two entities refer to the same object.
x is y is
y are the same object. The
in operator verifies membership and is typically used with collections such as Lists and Sets. If
x in y is
True, it means
x is one of the entries in the list
The most important role for Boolean operators is for their use in conditional statements. When a Boolean expression evaluates to
False, it can be used to control the flow of a program. Boolean expressions are used in
else statements as well as in loops.
The conditional statement typically precedes a clause, which is a block of one or more lines of code. The Boolean value of the conditional statement determines the clause to be executed if any. For more information on the various conditional statements, see the Python documentation for compound statements.
else statements are common place in any program. If the result of the conditional statement following the
if keyword is
True, the associated code block is entered and executed. The
if conditional can be followed by one or more
elif statements, which stands for “else if”. Each
elif conditional is tested in turn until one evaluates to
True. The corresponding
elif code block is then executed. As soon as Python reaches an
else statement, it automatically executes the
else code block. If all of the
elif statements are
False and there is no
else statement, nothing is executed. Program control skips over to the next line of code.
The example below demonstrates how the
if statement works with a conditional. The
if statement evaluates the conditional operator
humidity > 80. In this case,
humidity is greater than
80, so the conditional is
True. Control passes to the indented code block and the line
It is a humid day is printed.
humidity = 85 if humidity > 80: ... print("It is a humid day")
It is a humid day
A more complicated series of conditional statements are shown in the
py_temp.py file below. A
for loop processes a list of three humidity readings. The
if conditional statement subsequently processes each value. If the reading is greater than
80, it satisfies the
if statement, and Python prints
This humidity is too high. If not, the
elif statement tests whether
humidity is under
60. If it is, Python prints
This humidity is too low. In all other cases, control passes to the
else statement and Python prints the line
This humidity is just right.
The following example demonstrates how the program works using a list of
[50, 70, 90]. The first value satisfies the
elif conditional, while the final value passes the
if conditional. The second value is
False for both tests, so control passes to the
- File: py_temp.py
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
humidities = [50, 70, 90] for humidity in humidities: if humidity > 80: print(humidity, ": This humidity is too high") elif humidity < 60: print(humidity, ": This humidity is too low") else: print(humidity, ": This humidity is just right")
50 : This humidity is too low 70 : This humidity is just right 90 : This humidity is too high
Although these examples use the
if statement, other control structures can also use conditional statements. For example, the
while (condition) statement continues to loop through the subsequent block of code as long as
condition continues to evaluate to
Boolean expressions and operators are indispensable when writing a Python program. The two Boolean values in Python are
False, and a Python Boolean expression always evaluates one of those two values. Python’s
bool operator can be used to determine the Boolean value of an expression. Python maintains certain rules for determining the truth of an expression. For example, a non-zero integer is always
Python provides a full selection of comparison and logical operators. Python’s comparison operators compare two values. They include the equality
!=, greater than
>, greater or equal to
>=, less than
<, and less than or equal to
<= operators. Python logical operators perform Boolean logic on Boolean values. The
and operator returns
True only in the case where both expressions are also
True. However, the
or operator returns only
False when both expressions are
not operator inverts the value of its input. Boolean operators are frequently used as input for conditional statements like
For more information about Boolean values and expressions in Python, see the Python Language Reference.
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