How to Create a Private Python Package Repository

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How Does Python Handle Package Management?

Package management in Python is available through a variety of different programming tools:

  • Pip remains one of the most popular choices because it virtually eliminates manual installs and updates of software packages to operating systems. Pip manages full lists of packages and their corresponding version numbers, which fosters precise duplication of entire package groups in a distinct, separate environment.

  • PyPI (Python Package Index) is a public repository of user-submitted packages that can be installed using pip install package. This guide breaks down the basic scaffolding of a Python package, then using PyPiServer, creates a PyPi private repository by uploading the package to a Linode.

Before You Begin

  1. Familiarize yourself with our Getting Started guide and complete the steps for setting your Linode’s timezone.

  2. This guide assumes usage of Python 3 and a working installation of pip along with setuptools. Starting with Python 3.4, pip comes with the default installation. On Debian distributions, pip can be installed using the apt package manager with sudo apt install python-pip.

  3. Apache 2.4 is used in this guide. Older versions may lack identical directives and will have slightly different configurations.

Minimalist Python Package

The basic scaffolding of a Python package is a file containing code that interfaces with the user.

  1. Create a directory with your intended package name. This guide will use linode_example.

    mkdir linode_example
    If you choose to make your package public, there are additional considerations for deciding on a package name. The official documentation suggests using only lowercase characters - unique to PyPI - and the underscore character to separate words if needed.
  2. Navigate into the newly created directory. Create a file called and another directory called linode_example, containing The directory tree should look like this:

  3. Edit to contain basic information about your Python package repository:

    File: linode_example/
    from setuptools import setup
        description='Hello world enterprise edition',
  4. Add an example function to

    File: linode_example/linode_example/
    def hello_word():
        print("hello world")
  5. The setup.cfg file lets PyPI know the README is a Markdown file:

    File: setup.cfg
    description-file =
  6. Optionally, add a LICENSE.txt or information to This is good documentation practices, and helpful if you ever plan to upload the Python package into the public PyPI repository.

  7. The Python package repository needs to be compressed before it can be available for download on your server. Compress the package:

    python sdist

    A tar.gz file will be generated in ~/linode_example/dist/.

Install PyPI Server

Next, set up a server to host a package index. This guide will use pypiserver, a wrapper built on the Bottle framework that makes setting up a package index on a server much easier.

  1. Install virtualenv if it’s not already installed:

    pip install virtualenv
  2. Create a new directory which will be used to hold Python packages as well as files used by Apache. Create a new virtual environment called venv inside this directory, then activate:

    mkdir ~/packages
    cd packages
    virtualenv venv
    source venv/bin/activate
  3. Download the package through pip in the newly created virtual environment:

    pip install pypiserver
    Alternatively, download pypiserver from Github, then navigate into the downloaded pypiserver directory and install packages with python install.
  4. Move linode_example-0.1.tar.gz into ~/packages:

    mv ~/linode_example/dist/linode_example-0.1.tar.gz ~/packages/
  5. Try the server by running:

    pypi-server -p 8080 ~/packages
  6. Currently the server is listening on all IP addresses. In a web browser, navigate to, where is the public IP of your Linode. The browser should display:

    You are now able to install the linode_example package by declaring an external url pip install --extra-index-url --trusted-host linode_example.

Authentication with Apache and passlib

  1. Install Apache and passlib for password-based authentication for uploads. Make sure you are still in your activated virtual environment ((venv) should appear before the terminal prompt) and then execute the following commands:

    sudo apt install apache2
    pip install passlib
  2. Create a password for authentication using htpasswd and move htpasswd.txt into the ~/packages directory. Enter the desired password twice:

    htpasswd -sc htpasswd.txt example_user
    New password:
    Re-type new password:
  3. Install and enable mod_wsgi in order to allow Bottle, a WSGI framework, to connect with Apache:

    sudo apt install libapache2-mod-wsgi
    sudo a2enmod wsgi
  4. Inside the ~/packages directory, create a pypiserver.wsgi file that creates an application object to connect between pypiserver and Apache:

    File: packages/pypiserver.wsgi
    import pypiserver
    PACKAGES = '/absolute/path/to/packages'
    HTPASSWD = '/absolute/path/to/htpasswd.txt'
    application =, redirect_to_fallback=True, password_file=HTPASSWD)
  5. Create a configuration file for the pypiserver located in /etc/apache2/sites-available/:

    File: /etc/apache2/sites-available/pypiserver.conf
    <VirtualHost *:80>
    WSGIPassAuthorization On
    WSGIScriptAlias / /absolute/path/to/packages/pypiserver.wsgi
    WSGIDaemonProcess pypiserver python-path=/absolute/path/to/packages:/absolute/path/to/packages/venv/lib/pythonX.X/site-packages
        LogLevel info
        <Directory /absolute/path/to/packages>
            WSGIProcessGroup pypiserver
            WSGIApplicationGroup %{GLOBAL}
            Require ip

    The Require ip directive is an example IP restricting access to Apache. To grant open access, replace with Require all granted. For more complex access control rules, consult access control in the Apache documentation.

    Depending on the version of Python and virtual environment path, the WSGIDaemonProcess directive may require a different path.
  6. Give the user www-data ownership of the ~/packages directory. This will allow uploading from a client using setuptools:

    sudo chown -R www-data:www-data packages/
  7. Disable the default site if needed and enable pypiserver:

    sudo a2dissite 000-default.conf
    sudo a2ensite pypiserver.conf
  8. Restart Apache:

    sudo service apache2 restart

    The repository should be accessible through by default on port 80, where is the public of the Linode.

Download From a Client

Recall the rather long flags declared with pip in order to download from a specified repository. Creating a configuration file containing the IP of your public server will simplify usage.

  1. On the client computer, create a .pip directory in the home directory. Inside this directory, create pip.conf with the following:

    File: pip.conf
    extra-index-url =
    trusted-host =
  2. Install the linode_example package:

    pip install linode_example
    Both the terminal output and showing all packages with pip list will show that the underscore in the package name has transformed into a dash. This is expected because setuptools uses the safe_name utility. For an in-depth discussion about this, see this mailing list thread.
  3. Open up a Python shell and try out the new package:

    >>from linode_example import hello_world
        hello world

Upload Remotely Using Setuptools

Although it’s possible to use scp to transfer tar.gz files to the repository, there are other tools such as twine and easy_install which can also be used.

  1. On a client computer, create a new configuration file in the home directory called .pypirc. The remote repository will be called linode:

    File: .pypirc
    index-servers =
    username: example_user
    password: mypassword

    Uploading to the official Python Package Index requires an account, although account information fields can be left blank. Replace example_user and mypassword with credentials defined through htpasswd from earlier.

  2. To upload from the directory of the Python package:

    python sdist upload -r linode

    If successful, the console will print the message: Server Response (200): OK.

More Information

You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.

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