How to Install MySQL on CentOS 8
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Most business applications require access to data, which in turn makes it important to know how to install and manage a Database Management System (DBMS). There are different types of DBMS, but the most popular is the Relational DBMS (RDBMS) which is based on Structured Query Language (SQL). One of the most popular RDBMS is MySQL. This guide explains how to download, and install MySQL on CentOS Stream 8, and set up important configurations.
Before we get started, understand the relationship between MySQL and MariaDB through their shared history. MySQL is an open-source RDBMS used for everything from small-scale to large-scale industrial applications. Oracle purchased MySQL in May 1995. However, Oracle’s vision of what MySQL should be fell short of some of MySQL developers’ and users’ expectations. These developers created MariaDB based on the Community Edition of MySQL and released it in October 2009.
MariaDB is touted as a drop-in replacement for MySQL, but there are differences between the two products. A significant number of features present in MariaDB make the move to the RDBMS a one-way process. Especially, when you plan to use the advanced features without using some sort of special tool to help with the transfer. It also pays to know that MySQL and MariaDB vary in functionality. For example, MySQL doesn’t support
JSON_QUERY, and MariaDB lacks support for
JSON_TABLE. When it comes to SQL support, MySQL provides superior indexing capabilities, while MariaDB supports sequences. The following table provides a quick overview of the significant differences between the two products:
|Underlying development languages||C/C++||C/C++|
|Maturity||Developed in 1995 so it has a long-term existence. The server currently has 8K stars and 3.1 forks on GitHub.||Developed in 2009 so it’s less mature, especially given the use of additional development languages. The server currently has 4.4k stars and 1.4k forks on GitHub.|
|Server Operating Systems||FreeBSD, Linux, OS X, Solaris, and Windows||Linux and Windows|
|Compatibility||MySQL and MariaDB have different views of JSON support. MySQL uses the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) RFC 7159 and RFC 7396 standards for JSON support.||Drop-in compatibility with MySQL up to version 5.5. Since then, new features make MariaDB increasingly incompatible with MySQL, so it’s important to verify compatibility before using MariaDB in an existing application.|
|Linux Distributions that include as part of Distribution||Unknown||Some of the most popular Linux distributions include MariaDB by default: CentOS, Debian, Fedora, OpenSUSE, and Red Hat Enterprise.|
|Companies Using||At least 5,878 companies (not including development firms) currently use MySQL, including Uber, Airbnb, Shopify, Pinterest, Netflix, Amazon, Udemy, and Twitter.||The number of verified companies using MariaDB varies, but featured customers include: Samsung, Virgin Media, Red Hat, Nokia, Select Quote, Tock, Walgreens, Pixid, Development Bank of Singapore (DBS), and Whitebox.|
The steps in this section detail installing MySQL on CentOS Stream 8. The process also works well with the older, and now deprecated, CentOS 8. The goal is to connect MySQL to CentOS 8, no matter what form it takes. Ultimately, you install MySQL server on Linux using the following steps:
Update the system using the command below:
sudo dnf update
A message displays at the end with the number of packages that need to be upgraded.
You may see some messages during the update process, such as whether the upgrade requires additional disk space. If additional disk space is required, type
Yand press Enter to continue.
A progress indicator is shown for each upgrade to keep the user apprised of how the process is going.
In case there is a kernel upgrade, reboot your system to reflect the changes after the upgrade.
Restart the services with outdated libraries using the GUI screens provided.
Perform required package upgrades to keep the system up to date.
sudo dnf upgrade
During the update process, you may be asked questions such as if you want to use additional disk space. Also, a progress indicator is shown anytime the system performs an upgrade. Mostly, you see a message telling you that the upgrades completed at the same time as the updates, so there is nothing to upgrade.
MySQL 8 is conveniently provided as part of the default repositories for CentOS Stream 8. You can directly run the command for MySQL set up as below.
sudo dnf install @mysql
As with the update process, you are asked questions like whether you want to use additional disk space and also see the progress indicator.
Start the MySQL server using the command below:
sudo systemctl start mysqld.service
Verify the status of MySQL 8.0.
sudo systemctl status mysqld
You see output similar to that shown below:
mysqld.service - MySQL 8.0 database server Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled) Active: active (running) since Fri 2022-07-29 15:53:50 UTC; 52s ago Process: 29625 ExecStartPost=/usr/libexec/mysql-check-upgrade (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Process: 29501 ExecStartPre=/usr/libexec/mysql-prepare-db-dir mysqld.service (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Process: 29477 ExecStartPre=/usr/libexec/mysql-check-socket (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Main PID: 29581 (mysqld) Status: "Server is operational" Tasks: 38 (limit: 4921) Memory: 456.1M CGroup: /system.slice/mysqld.service └─29581 /usr/libexec/mysqld --basedir=/usr Jul 29 15:53:37 172-105-17-53.ip.linodeusercontent.com systemd: Starting MySQL 8.0 database server... Jul 29 15:53:37 172-105-17-53.ip.linodeusercontent.com mysql-prepare-db-dir: Initializing MySQL database Jul 29 15:53:50 172-105-17-53.ip.linodeusercontent.com systemd: Started MySQL 8.0 database server.
Allow MySQL 8 to automatically start every time you reboot your server using the command below:
sudo systemctl enable mysqld
Your MySQL server is now ready to use.
For a safer MySQL installation, use the
mysql_secure_installation script to create a secure environment. The following steps show you how:
mysql_secure_installationscript. You may be asked to provide the
A welcome message is displayed on the screen and then the option to install
VALIDATE PASSWORD COMPONENT. This component verifies that users are relying on strong passwords to log into MySQL, so it’s an important addition to your security suite.
Yand press Enter to install the component. If you choose to install
VALIDATE PASSWORD COMPONENT, go through the following series of sub-steps to install the same:
Firstly you need to set the password validation policy. Here,
0is for low,
1for medium, and
2for strong. Setting a strong password option is the best option because it requires a password length of at least eight characters and the use of numeric, mixed case, special characters, and words that don’t appear in the dictionary. Enter a numeric value in a valid range of
3, then press
rootuser password. Type a password that matches the validation policy you set and press Enter. You are shown the strength of the password you entered, with 100 being quite strong. In case you do not wish to change the password, press Enter to signify no changes in the MySQL
Yand press Enter if you’re happy with the password.
Now, you are prompted if you want to remove anonymous users. Type
Yand press Enter unless you want to allow users without authentication to access your server.
Further, you are prompted if you want to disallow remote logins. Remote login access is required to access the MySQL server from outside, so press Enter to signify no.
Next in the script, it prompts the user to remove the test database. The test database can be helpful during the experimental phase of MySQL. If you wish to remove the test database type
Yand press Enter. Press Enter if you want to keep the test database.
The next prompt is important because you need to reload the privilege tables for the changes to become permanent and have immediate effect. Type
Yand press Enter. MySQL is now configured.
As you work with MySQL on CentOS Stream 8, ensure that the server is in the expected state. Check the status of the MySQL server using the command below:
sudo systemctl status mysqld
The output shows MySQL as started and enabled. The following is a list of helpful commands to start, stop, and restart MySQL as needed:
- Start MySQL server:
sudo systemctl start mysqld.service sudo systemctl enable mysqld
- Stop MySQL server:
sudo systemctl stop mysqld.service sudo systemctl disable mysqld
- Restart MySQl server:
sudo systemctl restart mysqld.service
To run a quick test of your MySQL installation, run the below command to verify the service runtime status.
sudo systemctl status mysqld
Then, perform the following checks:
Check MySQL version: Use the command below to check the version of MySQL installed. You are asked for the password that you created earlier. If the entered password is successful, you see information about your version of MySQL.
mysqladmin -u root -p version
Access MySQL server: You can access the MySQL server with the following sub-steps:
- Login to MySQL as the
rootuser. Provide the root user password when prompted.
mysql -u root -p
- Create a database named
Testin MySQL server.
CREATE DATABASE Test;Don’t forget the semicolon at the end of the command.
MySQL gives the following output:
Query OK, 1 rows affected (0.00 sec)
- To check the list of current databases, which includes the
Testdatabase, on MySQL, run the command below:
- To remove a database from the server, run the command below:
DROP DATABASE Test;
- Again, check the list of databases present on the MySQL server. Now you have the latest list of available databases. You see
Testdatabase deleted in the previous step is missing from the list.
- Exit MySQL and return to the terminal prompt.
- Login to MySQL as the
One of the biggest takeaways is that both MySQL and MariaDB provide enterprise-level database functionality. Each has its specialization. Installing either product is relatively easy using the Package Manager. When installing MySQL, take additional steps when working with the MySQL installation script. Remote access to MySQL setup requires that you configure MySQL to allow remote login and then set up UFW as well.
You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.
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