Use the Shebang in Bash and Python
A Shebang directive, which always begins with the sequence
#!, can sometimes be found on the first line of a Bash or Python script. In a Linux environment, the Shebang functions as an interpreter directive. This guide explains what a Shebang is and what advantages it provides. It also describes how to use a Shebang inside a Bash or Python script.
#! symbol indicates the interpreter, or which version of an interpreter, to use when executing a script. It is also known as the “sharp-exclamation”, “sha-bang”, “hash-bang”, or “pound-bang”. The name is believed to have originated as a partial contraction of either “SHarp bang” or “haSH bang”.
A Shebang is always the first line of a script. Because it begins with the
# symbol, the interpreter does not process the line containing the Shebang. When a Linux system executes a text file, it treats the Shebang as an interpreter directive. It locates the correct interpreter and runs it, passing the name of the file to the interpreter as input. For example, executing a file named
~/scripts/shebang that begins with the Shebang
#!/bin/sh is functionally equivalent to running the command
/bin/sh ~/scripts/shebang. The text file must be executable for proper processing to occur.
The Shebang directive has the following advantages:
- Permits users to treat scripts and files as commands.
- Hides certain implementation details from users, such as the name of the interpreter.
- Does not require the user to know the absolute path to the interpreter or how to use the
- Allows a particular version of an interpreter to be used, for example,
- Allows the interpreter to be changed while maintaining the same user behavior and command.
- Can automatically pass mandatory options through to the interpreter.
One potential drawback can occur if the path to the interpreter is hard coded. If the location of the interpreter changes, the Shebang directive must be updated at the same time. Otherwise, the script might stop working.
The Shebang directive follows this format.
Here is an actual example of a Shebang instruction. This Shebang mandates the use of the
sh Bourne shell to run the script. This example uses an absolute path to define the interpreter.
env utility can help find the path to the interpreter. In this case, the Shebang instructs the system to use
/usr/bin/env to discover the path to the
python2 interpreter. This technique is more robust because it continues to work if the path changes.
To effectively implement a Shebang, keep in mind the following rules.
- The directive must always begin with the
- To work properly, a Shebang must occur on the first line of the file. If it is found in any other place, it is treated as a comment.
- Either specify the full absolute path to the interpreter or use
envto find the correct path.
- Place any interpreter options after the name of the interpreter. Implementation details for compiler options vary between different systems. However, all major operating systems support at least one option.
- One or more spaces between the
#!character combo and the name of the interpreter are allowed, but not required. For example, the directives
#! interpreterare both valid and functionally equivalent.
- Linux permits a second script to serve as the interpreter for the first script, but this is not the case for all operating systems.
#!/bin/false is a special Shebang. It immediately exits and returns a failure status. It prevents certain system files from being executed outside of their correct context.
Follow our Setting Up and Securing a Compute Instance guide to update your system. You may also wish to set the timezone, configure your hostname, create a limited user account, and harden SSH access.
sudo. If you are not familiar with the
sudo command, see the Users and Groups guide.
The most common use of the Shebang is to specify the correct shell to use for a shell script. If a Shebang is not specified, the system uses the default interpreter belonging to the current shell. For example, in the Bash shell, the default interpreter is
To ensure the
sh interpreter always processes a script, no matter what shell is active, a Shebang must be used. A Shebang such as
#!/usr/bin/env sh must be added. The system launches the
sh interpreter, appending the name of the file as an argument. The interpreter treats the Shebang like a comment, which avoids an infinite loop, and interprets the remainder of the file.
One common method to use a Shebang is to specify the full path to the interpreter on the first line of the file.
ps h -p $$ -o args='' prints out the name of the interpreter along with any arguments passed to it.
To use a Shebang to define a mandatory interpreter for a shell script, follow these steps.
Create a file named
shebang_absolutewith the following contents.
- File: shebang_absolute
1 2 3 4
#!/bin/sh echo "Interpreter test. The interpreter and arguments are:" ps h -p $$ -o args=''
Ensure the file is executable.
chmod +x shebang_absolute
Execute the file from the same directory. The
shinterpreter is shown in the output.
Interpreter test. The interpreter and arguments are: /bin/sh ./shebang_absolute
Change the first line to
#!/bin/bashand run the program again. The output now shows
bashas the interpreter.
Interpreter test. The interpreter and arguments are: /bin/bash ./shebang_absolute
For a more robust script implementation, use the
env utility to determine the path to the interpreter.
env uses the
$PATH variable to search for the interpreter. It always returns the first match it finds.
env in a Shebang, follow these steps.
Create a new file named
shebang_env. Add the following instructions.
- File: shebang_env
1 2 3 4
#!/usr/bin/env sh echo "Interpreter test. The interpreter and arguments are:" ps h -p $$ -o args=''
Change the file attributes so the file is executable.
chmod +x shebang_env
Execute the file. Run the command from the same directory as the new file.
Interpreter test. The interpreter and arguments are: sh ./shebang_env
A Shebang can pass through interpreter options. The directive
#!/bin/sh -v runs the interpreter using the
-v/verbose option. This option echoes each command to the screen upon execution. This example appends the
-v option to the Shebang in
echo "Interpreter test. The interpreter and arguments are:"
Interpreter test. The interpreter and arguments are:
ps h -p $$ -o args=''
/bin/bash -v ./shebang_absolute
env, do not declare the option within the Shebang. Instead, use the declaration
set -v to set the option on the next line.
In Python, the Shebang identifies which version of the Python interpreter to use. This feature might be necessary for older programs that cannot run on newer interpreters. Any script that requires Python version 2 can be redirected to the
python2 interpreter. The Shebang
#!/usr/bin/env python2 sets the Python interpreter to
python2. Always use the
env utility to set the path to the Python interpreter because it is sometimes installed in a non-standard directory.
To use a Shebang with a Python script, follow these steps.
py_v3.pyPython file. Add the following commands. The
sys.versionmethod displays the active version of the Python interpreter. Use
import systo import the necessary package.
- File: py_v3.py
1 2 3 4 5
#!/usr/bin/env python3 import sys print("This version of Python is:") print(sys.version)
Set the execute permission on the file.
chmod +x py_v3.py
Run the executable file, but do not use the
python3command. The correct Python interpreter is selected at runtime based on the Shebang.
This version of Python is: 3.10.4 (main, Jun 29 2022, 12:14:53) [GCC 11.2.0]
To confirm Python version 2 can be substituted in place of Python 3, create a new file
py_v2.pyand enter the following instructions.
- File: py_v2.py
1 2 3 4 5
#!/usr/bin/env python2 import sys print("This version of Python is:") print(sys.version)
Set the executable attribute and run the file. The program now displays information about the
chmod +x py_v2.py ./py_v2.py
This version of Python is: 2.7.18 (default, Jul 1 2022, 10:30:50) [GCC 11.2.0]
Even if a file contains a Shebang, it’s still possible to override it from the command line. One reason to do this might be to test how a script behaves with a different interpreter. From the command line, enter the name of the interpreter to use, followed by the name of the file. This tells the system to ignore the Shebang statement.
In the following example,
py_v2.py contains the Shebang directive
#!/usr/bin/env python2. But if the command
python3 ./py_v2.py is entered, the
python3 interpreter is used instead.
This version of Python is:
3.10.4 (main, Jun 29 2022, 12:14:53) [GCC 11.2.0]
A Shebang indicates which Bash or Python interpreter to use to interpret an executable file. Shebangs are supported on Linux and many other operating systems. A Shebang begins with the characters
#! and only occurs on the first line of the file. The interpreter can be specified using an absolute path or through the
env program. It is possible to use a Shebang to pass additional parameters to the interpreter or to override a Shebang on the command line.
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