LAMP Server on Fedora 11
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This guide provides step-by-step instructions for installing a full-featured LAMP stack on a Fedora 11 system. In this guide, you will be instructed on setting up Apache, MySQL, and PHP. If you don’t feel that you will need MySQL or PHP, please don’t feel obligated to install them.
It is important to make sure that your system is properly configured before installing Apache. In particular, you need to make sure that your system is up to date and that you have set the correct hostname, as well as set hosts in your
/etc/hosts file. If you haven’t configured these, you should follow the directions in the Setting Up and Securing a Compute Instance. Additionally, if you haven’t configured your timezone yet, follow the instructions in our administration basics guide.
If your system is configured and up to date, you may begin by installing Apache on your Linode. This guide assumes that you are logged in as the root superuser on your Linode.
Install and Configure the Apache Web Server
The Apache Web Server is a very popular choice for serving web pages. While many alternatives have appeared in the last few years, Apache remains a powerful option that we recommend for most uses.
Make sure your system is up to date by issuing the following command:
To install the current version of the Apache web server (in the 2.x series) use the following command:
yum install httpd
The main configuration directives for Apache are contained in the
httpd.conf file, which is located at
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. We advise you to make a backup of this file into your home directory, like so:
cp /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf ~/httpd.conf.backup
By default, all files ending in the
.conf extension in
/etc/httpd/conf.d/ are treated as configuration files, and we recommend placing your non-standard configuration options in files in these directories. Regardless of how you choose to organize your configuration files, making regular backups of known working states is highly recommended.
Now we’ll configure virtual hosting so that we can host multiple domains (or subdomains) with the server. These websites can be controlled by different users, or by a single user, as you prefer.
Before we get started, we suggest that you combine all configuration on virtual hosting into a single file called
vhost.conf located in the
/etc/httpd/conf.d/ directory. Open this file in your favorite text editor, and we’ll begin by setting up virtual hosting.
Configure Virtual Hosting
There are different ways to set up Virtual Hosts, however we recommend the method below.
By default, Apache listens on all IP addresses available to it. We must configure it to listen only on addresses we specify. Even if you only have one IP, it is still a good idea to tell Apache what IP address to listen on in case you decide to add more.
Begin by adding the following line to the virtual hosting configuration file:
- File: /etc/httpd/conf.d/vhost.conf
Be sure to replace 22.214.171.124 with your own IP address.
Configure Virtual Hosts
Now we will create virtual host entries for each site that we need to host with this server. Here are two examples for sites at “example.com” and “example.org”.
- File: /etc/httpd/conf.d/vhost.conf
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<VirtualHost 126.96.36.199:80> ServerAdmin firstname.lastname@example.org ServerName example.com ServerAlias www.example.com DocumentRoot /srv/www/example.com/public_html/ ErrorLog /srv/www/example.com/logs/error.log CustomLog /srv/www/example.com/logs/access.log combined </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost 188.8.131.52:80> ServerAdmin email@example.com ServerName example.org ServerAlias www.example.org DocumentRoot /srv/www/example.org/public_html/ ErrorLog /srv/www/example.org/logs/error.log CustomLog /srv/www/example.org/logs/access.log combined </VirtualHost>
Notes regarding this example configuration:
- All of the files for the sites that you host will be located in directories that exist underneath
/srv/www. You can symbolically link these directories into other locations if you need them to exist in other places.
CustomLogentries are suggested for more fine-grained logging, but are not required. If they are defined (as shown above), the
logsdirectories must be created before you restart Apache.
Before you can use the above configuration, you’ll need to create the specified directories. For the above configuration, you can do this with the following commands:
mkdir -p /srv/www/example.com/public_html mkdir /srv/www/example.com/logs mkdir -p /srv/www/example.org/public_html mkdir /srv/www/example.org/logs
After you’ve set up your virtual hosts, issue the following command to run Apache for the first time:
Assuming that you have configured the DNS for your domain to point to your Linode’s IP address, Virtual hosting for your domain should now work. Remember that you can create as many virtual hosts with Apache as you need.
Any time you change an option in your
vhost.conf file, or any other Apache configuration remember to reload the configuration with the following command:
Install and Configure MySQL Database Server
MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) and is a popular component in contemporary web development tool chains. It is used to store data for many popular applications, including WordPress and Drupal.
The first step is to install the mysql-server package, which is accomplished by the following command:
yum install mysql-server
If you want to run MySQL by default when the system boots, which is a typical setup, execute the following command:
/sbin/chkconfig --levels 235 mysqld on
chkconfig command to setup runlevels as needed.
Now you can start the mysql daemon (
mysqld) with the following command:
service mysqld start
MySQL should be ready to configure and run. While you shouldn’t need to change the configuration file, note that it is located at
/etc/my.cnf for future reference.
Configure MySQL and Set Up MySQL databases
After installing MySQL, it’s recommended that you run
mysql_secure_installation, a program that helps secure MySQL. While running
mysql_secure_installation, you will be presented with the opportunity to change the MySQL root password, remove anonymous user accounts, disable root logins outside of localhost, and remove test databases. It is recommended that you answer yes to these options. If you are prompted to reload the privilege tables, select yes. Run the following command to execute the program:
Next, we’ll create a database and grant your users permissions to use databases. First, log in to MySQL:
mysql -u root -p
Enter MySQL’s root password, and you’ll be presented with a prompt where you can issue SQL statements to interact with the database.
To create a database and grant your users permissions on it, issue the following command. The semi-colons (
; characters) at the end of the lines are crucial for ending the commands. Your command should look like this:
create database webdata; grant all on webdata.* to 'username' identified by 'password';
In the example above,
webdata is the name of the database,
username is the username, and
password password. Note that database user names and passwords are only used by scripts connecting to the database, and that database user account names need not (and perhaps should not) represent actual user accounts on the system.
With that completed, you’ve successfully configured MySQL and you may now pass these database credentials on to your users. To exit the MySQL database administration utility issue the following command:
With Apache and MySQL installed you are now ready to move on to installing PHP to provide scripting support for your web pages.
Installing and Configuring PHP
PHP makes it possible to produce dynamic and interactive pages using your own scripts and popular web development frameworks. Furthermore, many popular web applications like WordPress are written in PHP. If you want to be able to develop your websites using PHP, you must first install it.
Fedora includes packages for installing PHP from the terminal. Issue the following command:
yum install php php-pear
Once PHP5 is installed, we’ll need to tune the configuration file located in
/etc/php.ini to enable more descriptive errors, logging, and better performance. These modifications provide a good starting point if you’re unfamiliar with PHP configuration.
Make sure that the following values are set, and relevant lines are uncommented (comments are lines beginning with a semi-colon (
- File: /etc/php.ini
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error_reporting = E_COMPILE_ERROR|E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR|E_ERROR|E_CORE_ERROR display_errors = Off log_errors = On error_log = /var/log/php.log max_execution_time = 300 memory_limit = 64M register_globals = Off
If you need support for MySQL in PHP, then you must install the php5-mysql package with the following command:
yum install php-mysql
Finally, restart Apache to make sure everything is loaded correctly:
You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.
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