Run PHP Applications under CGI with Apache on Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick)
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In most cases, we recommend using the
mod_php module to run PHP scripts with the
Apache HTTP server. This embeds a PHP interpreter in the web server process and makes running PHP applications easy. The embedded interpreter approach, however, is not without challenges. When the PHP interpreter is embedded in the web server process, PHP scripts are executed by and with the permissions of the web server’s user. In smaller deployments, this is perfectly acceptable, but in larger deployments and operations it can create security risks. While Apache’s
itk message passing module (mpm) makes it possible to run Apache processes under user processes in a per-virtual host setup, this is incompatible with the embedded interpreter. The
itk module is compatible with PHP running as a CGI process.
Additionally, in our experience,
mod_php is incompatible with the
mod_rails or Phusion Passenger method of running
Ruby On Rails. In these cases, if you want to run PHP and Rails applications within a single instance of Apache, you must run PHP scripts as CGI processes using the method outlined below.
Before beginning this guide we assume that you’ve completed the getting started guide. If you are new to Linux server administration, we recommend considering the beginner’s guide, and the article concerning systems administration basics. If you’re interested in learning more about the Apache HTTP server, we encourage you to consider our extensive documentation on Apache configuration.
Set the Hostname
Before you begin installing and configuring the components described in this guide, please make sure you’ve followed our instructions for setting your hostname. Issue the following commands to make sure it is set properly:
hostname hostname -f
The first command should show your short hostname, and the second should show your fully qualified domain name (FQDN).
Installing Apache and PHP
Issue the following commands to refresh your system’s package database and ensure that all installed packages are up to date and running the latest available bug fixes and security updates:
apt-get update apt-get upgrade
If you have not already installed the Apache HTTP server, issue the following command to install the packages for Apache:
apt-get install apache2
You can now configure virtual hosting in accordance with the needs of your server. To install the PHP CGI binaries, issue the following command:
apt-get install php5-cgi
When this process completes, we can configure Apache to hand PHP scripts to the CGI process for rendering these scripts.
Configure Apache for PHP CGI
In order to set up Apache to use PHP-CGI on Ubuntu systems, you must enable the
mod_actions module. Issue the following command:
The required directives can be set anywhere in Apache’s
configuration tree. We recommend creating the
php-cgi.conf file in Apache’s
conf.d/ directory and setting these variables there. For Ubuntu systems, this is located at
/etc/apache2/conf.d/. You may also choose to place these settings in your
/etc/apache2/httpd.conf file. Regardless of their location, the relevant settings are:
- File: Apache Configuration Block
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ScriptAlias /local-bin /usr/bin AddHandler application/x-httpd-php5 php Action application/x-httpd-php5 /local-bin/php-cgi
In this example, the path to the
php-cgi binary is
/usr/bin/php-cgi. All files with the
php extension will be handed to the PHP CGI binary.
You may also choose to put these configuration directives within a virtual hosting block. If you do not have
mod_php enabled or installed, you can use this to selectively enable PHP for certain virtual hosts. Furthermore, if your deployment requires multiple versions of PHP, you can specify virtual host specific handlers by specifying paths to various versions of
The configuration file for the CGI executable of PHP is located at
/etc/php5/cgi/php.ini. You can modify this file to suit the needs of your deployment.
- File: /etc/php5/cgi/php.ini
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error_reporting = E_COMPILE_ERROR|E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR|E_ERROR|E_CORE_ERROR display_errors = Off log_errors = On error_log = /var/log/php.log max_execution_time = 30 memory_limit = 64M register_globals = Off
If you need support for MySQL in PHP, then you must install the php5-mysql package with the following command:
apt-get install php5-mysql
php-cgi is configured, you can now safely enable the
itk message passing module for Apache. The installation process for
itk will restart the Apache process. If you choose to use PHP CGI with the default or existing message passing module, then restart Apache by issuing the following command:
Enabling the “itk” Message Passing Module
The default Apache configuration uses a message passing module called
worker which uses a threaded approach to efficiently handling HTTP requests. An alternative MPM is
prefork which does not use threads and is compatible with non-thread-safe libraries. Both the
prefork modules require that all requests be handled by a process running under a user with particular permissions. On Ubuntu systems, Apache processes run under the
This may not be ideal if you have multiple users running publicly accessible scripts on your server. In some of these cases it is prudent to isolate virtual hosts under specific user accounts using an alternative message passing module, known as
mpm-itk is quite similar to
itk can processes requests for each virtual host or each site under a specified user account. This useful in situations where you’re hosting a number of distinct sites and you need to isolate sites on the basis of user privileges.
Begin by installing the mpm-itk module:
apt-get install apache2-mpm-itk
Now, in the
<VirtualHost > entries for your sites (the site-specific files in
/etc/apache2/sites-avalible/) add the following sub-block:
- File: Apache Virtual Hosting Configuration Block
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<IfModule mpm_itk_module> AssignUserId webeditor webgroup </IfModule>
In this example,
webeditor is the name of the user of the specific site in question, and
webgroup is the name of the user group that “owns” the web server related files and processes for this host. Remember that you must create the user accounts and groups using the
useradd command. Consider our documentation of
user groups and permissions for more information about creating the necessary users and groups.
You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.
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