Installing & Using Drupal Drush on Debian 7
Updated by Linode Written by Linode
Drush is a command line tool for creating, maintaining, and modifying Drupal websites. Command line tools, like Drush, add functionality through additional command packages. Once installed, Drush is as easy to use as any of the basic Linux commands. Drush rhymes with rush or crush. The name comes from combining the words Drupal and shell. Drush is designed only for Drupal and cannot be used with other content management systems.
Both new and experienced Drupal users can benefit from learning Drush. Users that have worked with a command line interface before have an advantage, but Drush is an excellent application for beginners, too.
Before installing Drush and Drupal, ensure that the following prerequisites have been met:
- Create a new Linode by following our Getting Started guide.
- Address security concerns with the Securing Your Server guide.
- Configure a LAMP stack using the Hosting a Website guide.
Make sure that your system is up to date, using:
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
NoteThis guide is written for a non-root user. Commands that require elevated privileges are prefixed with
sudo. If you’re not familiar with the
sudocommand, you can check our Users and Groups guide.
Install Git & Composer
The developers of Drush recommend installation through Composer, a PHP dependency manager. The Drush project is hosted on GitHub and controlled with Git, another necessary app to install.
sudo apt-get install git
curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | php
Move the composer.phar file to
/usr/local/bin/, so that it can be accessed from any directory:
sudo mv composer.phar /usr/local/bin/composer
Install Drush for All Users on the Server
Composer is designed to install PHP dependencies on a per-project basis, but the steps below will install a global Drush for all projects.
Create a symbolic link between Composer’s local bin directory,
/usr/local/bin/composer, and the system’s bin directory,
sudo ln -s /usr/local/bin/composer /usr/bin/composer
Use Git to download - or clone - the GitHub Drush project into a new directory:
sudo git clone https://github.com/drush-ops/drush.git /usr/local/src/drush
Change the working directory to the new Drush directory:
Use Git to checkout the version of Drush that you wish to use. The release page is at https://github.com/drush-ops/drush/releases. Below is a partial image of the release page with a red pointer displaying a sample version number.
For a different release, replace the version number in the following command:
sudo git checkout 7.0.0-alpha5
Create a symbolic link between the Drush directory in
/usr/bin, so that the Drush command can be called from any directory:
sudo ln -s /usr/local/src/drush/drush /usr/bin/drush
Now, run the Composer install command:
sudo composer install
Drush has now been installed for all users on the server. Check for the proper version number:
Drush has dozens of commands with hundreds of options. Drush can interface with MySQL, Drupal, Git, and more. To demonstrate using Drush, we will create a Drupal website along with a few other helpful commands.
To get started with Drush, run it without any following commands to list the help manual:
View more detailed documentation for a specific command by typing
drush helpand then the command, for example:
drush help site-install
List many of the specs for your server and website with:
Create a Drupal Website with Drush
Drush can create a Drupal site with half the steps of a normal installation. The
drush dl drupal command conveniently chooses the latest, stable installation of Drupal.
Install the required PHP graphics library:
sudo apt-get install php5-gd
NoteIf the install process displays a prompt concerning a modified configuration file, choose the “keep the local version currently installed” option.
Check that the Apache2 rewrite module is enabled:
sudo a2enmod rewrite
Reload the Apache server software:
sudo service apache2 reload
Change the working directory to the location of the new website. The previous guides created a /var/www/
example.com/public_html directory, replacing
example.com, and made
public_htmlthe document root or the publicly viewable directory.
Download Drupal to a folder named drupal:
sudo drush dl drupal --drupal-project-rename=drupal
NoteYou can specify versions of Drupal. For example to install Drupal 8, which is in beta at the time of this publication, use
drush dl drupal-8.
Change the working directory to the new ‘drupal’ folder:
Now the server is ready for the installation of a Drupal site. Below, provide a MySQL username, password, and database in the mysql://
databasenamelink option and the site’s name in the –site-name=
sudo drush si standard --db-url=mysql://username:password@localhost/databasename --site-name=example.com
NoteAlthough MySQL accepts passwords with a special character, for example an exclamation point, the
drush si standardcommand does not. If you have a special character in your MySQL password, you may need to change it.
After installation is complete, Drush creates a user, named
admin, and a random password. An example is pictured below. These credentials are used for the Drupal sign-in page.
Optionally, if you’d like to change the admin’s password, we recommend you do so with Drush, rather than sending the password over a non-secure HTTP connection. In the following command, replace
newpasswith your new password:
sudo drush user-password admin --password=newpass
Setting the Site’s Ownership and Permissions
In server administration, there are many options for user and group permissions. The directions below create a site owner and a site owner’s group. The Apache user, named www-data, is added to the site owner’s group. Then read, write, and execute permissions are granted to both the site owner and the site owner’s group.
To create a new user for the site owner position, review the Securing Your Server guide.
drupaldirectory, change ownership of the site to the chosen owner and that owner’s group. Replace
exampleuserbelow with the chosen owner’s username:
sudo chown -R exampleuser:exampleuser .
Add Apache’s www-data user to the site owner’s group:
sudo usermod -a -G exampleuser www-data
sudo service apache2 restart
Make sure the permissions are set to allow access for the site owner and site owner’s group:
sudo chmod -R 770 .
Now, www-data, exampleuser, and any user within the exampleuser group has read, write, and execute permissions for the entire Drupal site directory tree.
Finally, check the status of the new site:
CautionFile permissions are a constant concern for the system owner or root user. When installing new files, like a module or theme, make sure the Apache user www-data has access rights. Use the command
ls -alto list the file permissions within a directory.
Your site is now available at
ipaddress/drupal. Sign-in with the generated username and password and start delivering content to the world!
When you’re ready for the Drupal site to appear as your homepage, move the site to the /var/www/
example.com/ directory and double-check the document root listing in the virtual host file. See Step 5 in the Configuring Name Based Virtual Hosts section of our Hosting a Website guide.
There are many ways to set up administration for a website. Below are sections explaining some additional options. It’s important to be aware of multi-site setups and additional security measures. The topics below touch on these subjects.
File Ownership, Permissions, and Security
The above setup is designed for ease of use. However, there are setups designed for tighter security and other considerations.
- To design your own setup, read Linode’s documentation on Linux Users and Groups guide
- For an extremely secure setup, read Drupal’s Securing File Permissions and Ownership guide
To start, add a virtual host file with Apache. Next, build another site including the appropriate MySQL, PHP, and CMS configurations.
- To add a virtual host file, read Linode’s Configure Name-based Virtual Hosts guide
Install Drush for the Active User Only
You may want to install Drush for only certain users, for example, the site owner, root, and www-data. This may be optimal for a shared-hosting environment. Also, individual users can install their different versions of Drush and even install versions specific to a single project. The commands below should be run as the user in question, without
Modify the user’s
.bashrcfile to add the composer directory to it’s path:
Run source on
.bashrcto enable the changes:
composer global require drush/drush:dev-master
NoteTo install a different version of Drush, replace
drush/drush:dev-masterwith another version. For example, to install the stable release of Drush 6.x, use
drush/drush:6.*. For more information, check out the Drush GitHub repository.
Check to see that Drush was installed successfully:
You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.
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This guide is published under a CC BY-ND 4.0 license.