Apache Memory Usage

Hello

I'm getting out of memory error. I have 1 GB Linode.

According to you is this normal?

ps -eo pmem,pcpu,rss,vsize,args | sort -k 1 -r | less
%MEM %CPU   RSS    VSZ COMMAND
 8.6  1.4 87648 425896 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 8.5  1.8 85976 427408 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 8.4  0.9 85044 423112 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 8.2  0.2 83536 424748 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 8.1  0.6 82676 1140448 /usr/sbin/mysqld
 8.0  0.8 81240 419584 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 7.8  0.3 78964 419036 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 7.5  0.8 76680 418672 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 3.4  0.3 35368 394076 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 1.4  0.0 14420 382200 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 1.1  0.0 11460 226108 amavisd (ch3-avail)
 1.1  0.0 11340 226108 amavisd (ch2-avail)
 0.9  0.0 10072 226108 amavisd (ch2-avail)
 0.8  0.0  8344 382724 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 0.8  0.0  8256 382740 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 0.8  0.0  8256 382708 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 0.8  0.0  8236 382708 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 0.7  0.0  7748 382296 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 0.7  0.0  7748 382296 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 0.7  0.0  7748 382296 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 0.7  0.0  7744 382296 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 0.7  0.0  7228 382248 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
 0.5  0.0  5776  26248 -bash
 0.3  0.0  3380  19772 dovecot/config
 0.3  0.0  3056 140956 /usr/sbin/spamd --create-prefs --max-children 5 --helper-home-dir -d --pidfile=/var/run/spamd.pid
 0.2  0.0  2596 106460 dovecot/auth -w
 0.2  0.0  2584  30648 /usr/bin/monit -c /etc/monit/monitrc
 0.2  0.0  2544 196160 /usr/bin/python /usr/bin/fail2ban-server -b -s /var/run/fail2ban/fail2ban.sock
 0.2  0.0  2536 140956 spamd child
 0.2  0.0  2500 140956 spamd child
 0.1  0.1  1492  44028 /usr/bin/freshclam -d --quiet
 0.1  0.0  1220  21008 bash
 0.1  0.0  1048   9732 ps -eo pmem,pcpu,rss,vsize,args
 0.1  0.0  1032  13752 less

What does

/usr/sbin/apache2 -k start

mean?

15 Replies

It is a web server process. Strange that some of them are using 8MB of memory, and some nearly 90MB. What web applications are you running (Wordpress, Drupal, etc.)? It may have a memory leak.

You could try setting MaxRequestsPerChild in your configuration file. This will cause each web server process to terminate after serving a limited number of requests, to be replaced by a new one re-spawned automatically. In /etc/apache2/apache2.conf (it may be named differently depending on your distribution), find the line - under this, set MaxRequestsPerChild 200 or whatever number is necessary to keep the RSS value for each process at a reasonable level. Although the real solution is to use a version of the web application that doesn't have a memory leak.

If you're still running out of memory, reduce the value for MaxClients in your configuration. Searching the forums will bring up a number of threads discussing this setting.

If you're running Wordpress it could be the 'Max Ram' setting isn't set so it tries to take 256M. Look at this thread for more info.

Out of memory again.

Oct 30 19:33:44 mail kernel: Out of memory: Kill process 7974 (amavisd (ch1-av) score 76 or sacrifice child
Oct 30 19:33:44 mail kernel: Killed process 7974 (amavisd (ch1-av) total-vm:308148kB, anon-rss:23324kB, file-rss:0kB
Oct 30 19:33:47 mail kernel: apache2 invoked oom-killer: gfp_mask=0x201da, order=0, oom_score_adj=0
Oct 30 19:33:47 mail kernel: apache2 cpuset=/ mems_allowed=0
Oct 30 19:33:47 mail kernel: Pid: 13545, comm: apache2 Not tainted 3.9.3-x86_64-linode33 #1

Does amavisd cause out of memory?

Hello,

Thanks for your replies,

I've changed IfModule mpmpreforkmodule at /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

MaxClients 30 to 24

MaxRequestsPerChild 3000 to 1000

Now it's running well.

Yes It's wordpress and i will check Max Ram settings. What should it be?

I'd recommend dropping it to 32M if you're not loading a lot of plugins or 48M if your site uses a lot of plugins or has a lot of content.

If your setting is too low you may see a performance hit. If you do you can always bump the number up 8M or 16M at a time.

amavisd, like all processes, does use memory but in your list only shows it as using 3.1% of your RAM.

In your list you have 18 apache processes, some of which are using almost 90M (as Vance noted). According to your list they are using over 68% of your RAM. You should try to find why you're creating that many apache processes (especially if your site doesn't get a lot of heavy traffic).

Have you installed LongView to take a look at what may be eating up your memory?

@Main Street James:

amavisd, like all processes, does use memory but in your list only shows it as using 3.1% of your RAM.

In your list you have 18 apache processes, some of which are using almost 90M (as Vance noted). According to your list they are using over 68% of your RAM. You should try to find why you're creating that many apache processes (especially if your site doesn't get a lot of heavy traffic).

Have you installed LongView to take a look at what may be eating up your memory?

Yes i've installed LongView. How can i find what is eating up my memory?

Here is the process explorer

Longview » longview » Process Explorer

Name    User    Max #   Avg IO  Avg CPU  ▼ Avg Mem
▸apache2    www-data    20  79 KB/s 4%  666 MB
mysqld    mysql   1   26 KB/s 0.58%   60 MB
linode-longview    root    1   34 B/s  0.54%   21 MB
bash    indeepblue  1   1 MB/s  0%  7 MB
/usr/sbin/postg    postgrey    1   0 B/s   0%  4 MB
sshd    root    3   0 B/s   0%  4 MB
fail2ban-server    root    1   0 B/s   0.02%   4 MB
config    root    1   0 B/s   0%  3 MB
spamd child    root    2   0 B/s   0%  3 MB
/usr/sbin/spamd    root    1   0 B/s   0.02%   2 MB
monit    root    1   82 B/s  0.02%   2 MB
sshd    indeepblue  2   0 B/s   0%  2 MB
apache2    root    1   95 KB/s 0.04%   2 MB
pickup    postfix 1   14 B/s  0%  2 MB
proxymap    postfix 1   0 B/s   0%  1 MB
freshclam    clamav  1   0 B/s   0%  1 MB
ssl-params    root    1   0 B/s   0%  1 MB
qmgr    postfix 1   27 B/s  0%  1001 KB
init    root    1   0 B/s   0%  932 KB
tlsmgr    postfix 1   0 B/s   0%  888 KB

````
/etc/apache2/apache2.conf


#

Based upon the NCSA server configuration files originally by Rob McCool.

#

This is the main Apache server configuration file. It contains the

configuration directives that give the server its instructions.

See http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/ for detailed information about

the directives.

#

Do NOT simply read the instructions in here without understanding

what they do. They're here only as hints or reminders. If you are unsure

consult the online docs. You have been warned.

#

The configuration directives are grouped into three basic sections:

1. Directives that control the operation of the Apache server process as a

whole (the 'global environment').

2. Directives that define the parameters of the 'main' or 'default' server,

which responds to requests that aren't handled by a virtual host.

These directives also provide default values for the settings

of all virtual hosts.

3. Settings for virtual hosts, which allow Web requests to be sent to

different IP addresses or hostnames and have them handled by the

same Apache server process.

#

Configuration and logfile names: If the filenames you specify for many

of the server's control files begin with "/" (or "drive:/" for Win32), the

server will use that explicit path. If the filenames do not begin

with "/", the value of ServerRoot is prepended -- so "foo.log"

with ServerRoot set to "/etc/apache2" will be interpreted by the

server as "/etc/apache2/foo.log".

#

Section 1: Global Environment

#

The directives in this section affect the overall operation of Apache,

such as the number of concurrent requests it can handle or where it

can find its configuration files.

#

#

ServerRoot: The top of the directory tree under which the server's

configuration, error, and log files are kept.

#

NOTE! If you intend to place this on an NFS (or otherwise network)

mounted filesystem then please read the LockFile documentation (available

at );

you will save yourself a lot of trouble.

#

Do NOT add a slash at the end of the directory path.

#

ServerRoot "/etc/apache2"

#

The accept serialization lock file MUST BE STORED ON A LOCAL DISK.

#
LockFile ${APACHELOCKDIR}/accept.lock

#

PidFile: The file in which the server should record its process

identification number when it starts.

This needs to be set in /etc/apache2/envvars

#
PidFile ${APACHEPIDFILE}

#

Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out.

#
Timeout 300

#

KeepAlive: Whether or not to allow persistent connections (more than

one request per connection). Set to "Off" to deactivate.

#
KeepAlive On

#

MaxKeepAliveRequests: The maximum number of requests to allow

during a persistent connection. Set to 0 to allow an unlimited amount.

We recommend you leave this number high, for maximum performance.

#
MaxKeepAliveRequests 100

#

KeepAliveTimeout: Number of seconds to wait for the next request from the

same client on the same connection.

#
KeepAliveTimeout 5

#

Server-Pool Size Regulation (MPM specific)

prefork MPM

StartServers: number of server processes to start

MinSpareServers: minimum number of server processes which are kept spare

MaxSpareServers: maximum number of server processes which are kept spare

MaxClients: maximum number of server processes allowed to start

MaxRequestsPerChild: maximum number of requests a server process serves

StartServers 2 MinSpareServers 6 MaxSpareServers 12 MaxClients 24 MaxRequestsPerChild 1000

worker MPM

StartServers: initial number of server processes to start

MinSpareThreads: minimum number of worker threads which are kept spare

MaxSpareThreads: maximum number of worker threads which are kept spare

ThreadLimit: ThreadsPerChild can be changed to this maximum value during a

graceful restart. ThreadLimit can only be changed by stopping

and starting Apache.

ThreadsPerChild: constant number of worker threads in each server process

MaxClients: maximum number of simultaneous client connections

MaxRequestsPerChild: maximum number of requests a server process serves

StartServers 2 MinSpareThreads 25 MaxSpareThreads 75 ThreadLimit 64 ThreadsPerChild 25 MaxClients 100 MaxRequestsPerChild 0

event MPM

StartServers: initial number of server processes to start

MinSpareThreads: minimum number of worker threads which are kept spare

MaxSpareThreads: maximum number of worker threads which are kept spare

ThreadsPerChild: constant number of worker threads in each server process

MaxClients: maximum number of simultaneous client connections

MaxRequestsPerChild: maximum number of requests a server process serves

StartServers 2 MinSpareThreads 25 MaxSpareThreads 75 ThreadLimit 64 ThreadsPerChild 25 MaxClients 150 MaxRequestsPerChild 0

These need to be set in /etc/apache2/envvars

User ${APACHERUNUSER}
Group ${APACHERUNGROUP}

#

AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory

for additional configuration directives. See also the AllowOverride

directive.

#

AccessFileName .htaccess

#

The following lines prevent .htaccess and .htpasswd files from being

viewed by Web clients.

#
Order allow,deny Deny from all Satisfy all

#

DefaultType is the default MIME type the server will use for a document

if it cannot otherwise determine one, such as from filename extensions.

If your server contains mostly text or HTML documents, "text/plain" is

a good value. If most of your content is binary, such as applications

or images, you may want to use "application/octet-stream" instead to

keep browsers from trying to display binary files as though they are

text.

#

It is also possible to omit any default MIME type and let the

client's browser guess an appropriate action instead. Typically the

browser will decide based on the file's extension then. In cases

where no good assumption can be made, letting the default MIME type

unset is suggested instead of forcing the browser to accept

incorrect metadata.

#
DefaultType None

#

HostnameLookups: Log the names of clients or just their IP addresses

e.g., www.apache.org (on) or 204.62.129.132 (off).

The default is off because it'd be overall better for the net if people

had to knowingly turn this feature on, since enabling it means that

each client request will result in AT LEAST one lookup request to the

nameserver.

#
HostnameLookups Off

ErrorLog: The location of the error log file.

If you do not specify an ErrorLog directive within a # container, error messages relating to that virtual host will be

logged here. If you do define an error logfile for a # container, that host's errors will be logged there and not here.

#
ErrorLog ${APACHELOGDIR}/error.log

#

LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error_log.

Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,

alert, emerg.

#
LogLevel warn

Include module configuration:

Include mods-enabled/.load Include mods-enabled/.conf

Include all the user configurations:

Include httpd.conf

Include ports listing

Include ports.conf

#

The following directives define some format nicknames for use with

a CustomLog directive (see below).

If you are behind a reverse proxy, you might want to change %h into %{X-Forwarded-For}i

#
LogFormat "%v:%p %h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" vhost_combined
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O" common
LogFormat "%{Referer}i -> %U" referer
LogFormat "%{User-agent}i" agent

Include of directories ignores editors' and dpkg's backup files,

see README.Debian for details.

Include generic snippets of statements

Include conf.d/

Include the virtual host configurations:

Include sites-enabled/


/etc/mysql/my.cnf


#

The MySQL database server configuration file.

#

You can copy this to one of:

- "/etc/mysql/my.cnf" to set global options,

- "~/.my.cnf" to set user-specific options.

One can use all long options that the program supports.

Run program with --help to get a list of available options and with

--print-defaults to see which it would actually understand and use.

#

For explanations see

http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/server-system-variables.html

This will be passed to all mysql clients

It has been reported that passwords should be enclosed with ticks/quotes

escpecially if they contain "#" chars…

Remember to edit /etc/mysql/debian.cnf when changing the socket location.

[client]
port = 3306
socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock

Here is entries for some specific programs

The following values assume you have at least 32M ram

This was formally known as [safe_mysqld]. Both versions are currently parsed.

[mysqld_safe]
socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
nice = 0

[mysqld]
#

* Basic Settings

#
user = mysql
pid-file = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid
socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
port = 3306
basedir = /usr
datadir = /var/lib/mysql
tmpdir = /tmp
lc-messages-dir = /usr/share/mysql
skip-external-locking
#

Instead of skip-networking the default is now to listen only on

localhost which is more compatible and is not less secure.

bind-address = 127.0.0.1
#

* Fine Tuning

#
keybuffer = 32M maxallowedpacket = 1M threadstack = 128K
threadcachesize = 8

This replaces the startup script and checks MyISAM tables if needed

the first time they are touched

myisam-recover = BACKUP
maxconnections = 75 tablecache = 32

thread_concurrency = 10

#

* Query Cache Configuration

#
querycachelimit = 4M
querycachesize = 64M
#

* Logging and Replication

#

Both location gets rotated by the cronjob.

Be aware that this log type is a performance killer.

As of 5.1 you can enable the log at runtime!

generallogfile = /var/log/mysql/mysql.log

general_log = 1

#

Error log - should be very few entries.

#
log_error = /var/log/mysql/error.log
#

Here you can see queries with especially long duration

logslowqueries = /var/log/mysql/mysql-slow.log

longquerytime = 2

log-queries-not-using-indexes

#

The following can be used as easy to replay backup logs or for replication.

note: if you are setting up a replication slave, see README.Debian about

other settings you may need to change.

server-id = 1

log_bin = /var/log/mysql/mysql-bin.log

expirelogsdays = 10
maxbinlogsize = 100M

binlogdodb = includedatabasename

binlogignoredb = includedatabasename

#

* InnoDB

#

InnoDB is enabled by default with a 10MB datafile in /var/lib/mysql/.

Read the manual for more InnoDB related options. There are many!

#

* Security Features

#

Read the manual, too, if you want chroot!

chroot = /var/lib/mysql/

#

For generating SSL certificates I recommend the OpenSSL GUI "tinyca".

#

ssl-ca=/etc/mysql/cacert.pem

ssl-cert=/etc/mysql/server-cert.pem

ssl-key=/etc/mysql/server-key.pem

[mysqldump]
quick
quote-names
maxallowedpacket = 16M

[mysql]

no-auto-rehash # faster start of mysql but no tab completition

[isamchk]
key_buffer = 16M

#

* IMPORTANT: Additional settings that can override those from this file!

The files must end with '.cnf', otherwise they'll be ignored.

#
!includedir /etc/mysql/conf.d/

````

Any idea?

/etc/php5/apache2/php.ini
`[php]

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; php.ini Options  ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Name for user-defined php.ini (.htaccess) files. Default is ".user.ini"
;user_ini.filename = ".user.ini"

; To disable this feature set this option to empty value
;user_ini.filename =

; TTL for user-defined php.ini files (time-to-live) in seconds. Default is 300 seconds (5 minutes)
;user_ini.cache_ttl = 300

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Language Options ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; Enable the PHP scripting language engine under Apache.
; http://php.net/engine
engine = On

; Default Value: On
; Development Value: Off
; Production Value: Off
; http://php.net/short-open-tag
short_open_tag = On

; Allow ASP-style <% %> tags.
; http://php.net/asp-tags
asp_tags = Off

; The number of significant digits displayed in floating point numbers.
; http://php.net/precision
precision = 14

; Enforce year 2000 compliance (will cause problems with non-compliant browsers)
; http://php.net/y2k-compliance
y2k_compliance = On

; Note: This directive is hardcoded to Off for the CLI SAPI
; Default Value: Off
; Development Value: 4096
; Production Value: 4096
; http://php.net/output-buffering
output_buffering = 4096

; http://php.net/output-handler
;output_handler =

; Transparent output compression using the zlib library
; Valid values for this option are 'off', 'on', or a specific buffer size
; to be used for compression (default is 4KB)
; Note: Resulting chunk size may vary due to nature of compression. PHP
;   outputs chunks that are few hundreds bytes each as a result of
;   compression. If you prefer a larger chunk size for better
;   performance, enable output_buffering in addition.
; Note: You need to use zlib.output_handler instead of the standard
;   output_handler, or otherwise the output will be corrupted.
; http://php.net/zlib.output-compression
zlib.output_compression = Off

; http://php.net/zlib.output-compression-level
;zlib.output_compression_level = -1

; You cannot specify additional output handlers if zlib.output_compression
; is activated here. This setting does the same as output_handler but in
; a different order.
; http://php.net/zlib.output-handler
;zlib.output_handler =

; Implicit flush tells PHP to tell the output layer to flush itself
; automatically after every output block.  This is equivalent to calling the
; PHP function flush() after each and every call to print() or echo() and each
; and every HTML block.  Turning this option on has serious performance
; implications and is generally recommended for debugging purposes only.
; http://php.net/implicit-flush
; Note: This directive is hardcoded to On for the CLI SAPI
implicit_flush = Off

; The unserialize callback function will be called (with the undefined class'
; name as parameter), if the unserializer finds an undefined class
; which should be instantiated. A warning appears if the specified function is
; not defined, or if the function doesn't include/implement the missing class.
; So only set this entry, if you really want to implement such a
; callback-function.
unserialize_callback_func =

; When floats & doubles are serialized store serialize_precision significant
; digits after the floating point. The default value ensures that when floats
; are decoded with unserialize, the data will remain the same.
serialize_precision = 17

allow_call_time_pass_reference = Off

; Safe Mode
; http://php.net/safe-mode
safe_mode = Off

; By default, Safe Mode does a UID compare check when
; opening files. If you want to relax this to a GID compare,
; then turn on safe_mode_gid.
; http://php.net/safe-mode-gid
safe_mode_gid = Off

; When safe_mode is on, UID/GID checks are bypassed when
; including files from this directory and its subdirectories.
; (directory must also be in include_path or full path must
; be used when including)
; http://php.net/safe-mode-include-dir
safe_mode_include_dir =

; When safe_mode is on, only executables located in the safe_mode_exec_dir
; will be allowed to be executed via the exec family of functions.
; http://php.net/safe-mode-exec-dir
safe_mode_exec_dir =

; Setting certain environment variables may be a potential security breach.
; This directive contains a comma-delimited list of prefixes.  In Safe Mode,
; the user may only alter environment variables whose names begin with the
; prefixes supplied here.  By default, users will only be able to set
; environment variables that begin with PHP_ (e.g. PHP_FOO=BAR).
; Note:  If this directive is empty, PHP will let the user modify ANY
;   environment variable!
; http://php.net/safe-mode-allowed-env-vars
safe_mode_allowed_env_vars = PHP_

; This directive contains a comma-delimited list of environment variables that
; the end user won't be able to change using putenv().  These variables will be
; protected even if safe_mode_allowed_env_vars is set to allow to change them.
; http://php.net/safe-mode-protected-env-vars
safe_mode_protected_env_vars = LD_LIBRARY_PATH

; open_basedir, if set, limits all file operations to the defined directory
; and below.  This directive makes most sense if used in a per-directory
; or per-virtualhost web server configuration file. This directive is
; *NOT* affected by whether Safe Mode is turned On or Off.
; http://php.net/open-basedir
;open_basedir =

; This directive allows you to disable certain functions for security reasons.
; It receives a comma-delimited list of function names. This directive is
; *NOT* affected by whether Safe Mode is turned On or Off.
; http://php.net/disable-functions
disable_functions = pcntl_alarm,pcntl_fork,pcntl_waitpid,pcntl_wait,pcntl_wifexited,pcntl_wifstopped,pcntl_wifsignaled,pcntl_wexitstatus,pcntl_wtermsig,pcntl_wstopsig,pcntl_signal,pcntl_signal_dispatch,pcntl_get_last_error,pcntl_strerror,pcntl_sigprocmask,pcntl_sigwaitinfo,pcntl_sigtimedwait,pcntl_exec,pcntl_getpriority,pcntl_setpriority,

; This directive allows you to disable certain classes for security reasons.
; It receives a comma-delimited list of class names. This directive is
; *NOT* affected by whether Safe Mode is turned On or Off.
; http://php.net/disable-classes
disable_classes =

; Colors for Syntax Highlighting mode.  Anything that's acceptable in
; would work.
; http://php.net/syntax-highlighting
;highlight.string  = #DD0000
;highlight.comment = #FF9900
;highlight.keyword = #007700
;highlight.bg      = #FFFFFF
;highlight.default = #0000BB
;highlight.html    = #000000

; If enabled, the request will be allowed to complete even if the user aborts
; the request. Consider enabling it if executing long requests, which may end up
; being interrupted by the user or a browser timing out. PHP's default behavior
; is to disable this feature.
; http://php.net/ignore-user-abort
;ignore_user_abort = On

; Determines the size of the realpath cache to be used by PHP. This value should
; be increased on systems where PHP opens many files to reflect the quantity of
; the file operations performed.
; http://php.net/realpath-cache-size
;realpath_cache_size = 16k

; Duration of time, in seconds for which to cache realpath information for a given
; file or directory. For systems with rarely changing files, consider increasing this
; value.
; http://php.net/realpath-cache-ttl
;realpath_cache_ttl = 120

; Enables or disables the circular reference collector.
; http://php.net/zend.enable-gc
zend.enable_gc = On

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Miscellaneous ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; Decides whether PHP may expose the fact that it is installed on the server
; (e.g. by adding its signature to the Web server header).  It is no security
; threat in any way, but it makes it possible to determine whether you use PHP
; on your server or not.
; http://php.net/expose-php
expose_php = Off

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Resource Limits ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; Maximum execution time of each script, in seconds
; http://php.net/max-execution-time
; Note: This directive is hardcoded to 0 for the CLI SAPI
max_execution_time = 30

; Maximum amount of time each script may spend parsing request data. It's a good
; idea to limit this time on productions servers in order to eliminate unexpectedly
; long running scripts.
; Note: This directive is hardcoded to -1 for the CLI SAPI
; Default Value: -1 (Unlimited)
; Development Value: 60 (60 seconds)
; Production Value: 60 (60 seconds)
; http://php.net/max-input-time
max_input_time = 120

; Maximum input variable nesting level
; http://php.net/max-input-nesting-level
;max_input_nesting_level = 64

; How many GET/POST/COOKIE input variables may be accepted
; max_input_vars = 1000

; Maximum amount of memory a script may consume (128MB)
; http://php.net/memory-limit
memory_limit = 256M

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Error handling and logging ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; This directive informs PHP of which errors, warnings and notices you would like
; it to take action for. The recommended way of setting values for this
; directive is through the use of the error level constants and bitwise
; operators. The error level constants are below here for convenience as well as
; some common settings and their meanings.
; By default, PHP is set to take action on all errors, notices and warnings EXCEPT
; those related to E_NOTICE and E_STRICT, which together cover best practices and
; recommended coding standards in PHP. For performance reasons, this is the
; recommend error reporting setting. Your production server shouldn't be wasting
; resources complaining about best practices and coding standards. That's what
; development servers and development settings are for.
; Note: The php.ini-development file has this setting as E_ALL | E_STRICT. This
; means it pretty much reports everything which is exactly what you want during
; development and early testing.
;
; Error Level Constants:
; E_ALL             - All errors and warnings (includes E_STRICT as of PHP 6.0.0)
; E_ERROR           - fatal run-time errors
; E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR  - almost fatal run-time errors
; E_WARNING         - run-time warnings (non-fatal errors)
; E_PARSE           - compile-time parse errors
; E_NOTICE          - run-time notices (these are warnings which often result
;                     from a bug in your code, but it's possible that it was
;                     intentional (e.g., using an uninitialized variable and
;                     relying on the fact it's automatically initialized to an
;                     empty string)
; E_STRICT          - run-time notices, enable to have PHP suggest changes
;                     to your code which will ensure the best interoperability
;                     and forward compatibility of your code
; E_CORE_ERROR      - fatal errors that occur during PHP's initial startup
; E_CORE_WARNING    - warnings (non-fatal errors) that occur during PHP's
;                     initial startup
; E_COMPILE_ERROR   - fatal compile-time errors
; E_COMPILE_WARNING - compile-time warnings (non-fatal errors)
; E_USER_ERROR      - user-generated error message
; E_USER_WARNING    - user-generated warning message
; E_USER_NOTICE     - user-generated notice message
; E_DEPRECATED      - warn about code that will not work in future versions
;                     of PHP
; E_USER_DEPRECATED - user-generated deprecation warnings
;
; Common Values:
;   E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE  (Show all errors, except for notices and coding standards warnings.)
;   E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE | E_STRICT  (Show all errors, except for notices)
;   E_COMPILE_ERROR|E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR|E_ERROR|E_CORE_ERROR  (Show only errors)
;   E_ALL | E_STRICT  (Show all errors, warnings and notices including coding standards.)
; Default Value: E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE
; Development Value: E_ALL | E_STRICT
; Production Value: E_ALL & ~E_DEPRECATED
; http://php.net/error-reporting
error_reporting = E_COMPILE_ERROR|E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR|E_ERROR|E_CORE_ERROR

; This directive controls whether or not and where PHP will output errors,
; notices and warnings too. Error output is very useful during development, but
; it could be very dangerous in production environments. Depending on the code
; which is triggering the error, sensitive information could potentially leak
; out of your application such as database usernames and passwords or worse.
; It's recommended that errors be logged on production servers rather than
; having the errors sent to STDOUT.
; Possible Values:
;   Off = Do not display any errors
;   stderr = Display errors to STDERR (affects only CGI/CLI binaries!)
;   On or stdout = Display errors to STDOUT
; Default Value: On
; Development Value: On
; Production Value: Off
; http://php.net/display-errors
display_errors = Off

; The display of errors which occur during PHP's startup sequence are handled
; separately from display_errors. PHP's default behavior is to suppress those
; errors from clients. Turning the display of startup errors on can be useful in
; debugging configuration problems. But, it's strongly recommended that you
; leave this setting off on production servers.
; Default Value: Off
; Development Value: On
; Production Value: Off
; http://php.net/display-startup-errors
display_startup_errors = Off

; Besides displaying errors, PHP can also log errors to locations such as a
; server-specific log, STDERR, or a location specified by the error_log
; directive found below. While errors should not be displayed on productions
; servers they should still be monitored and logging is a great way to do that.
; Default Value: Off
; Development Value: On
; Production Value: On
; http://php.net/log-errors
log_errors = On

; Set maximum length of log_errors. In error_log information about the source is
; added. The default is 1024 and 0 allows to not apply any maximum length at all.
; http://php.net/log-errors-max-len
log_errors_max_len = 1024

; Do not log repeated messages. Repeated errors must occur in same file on same
; line unless ignore_repeated_source is set true.
; http://php.net/ignore-repeated-errors
ignore_repeated_errors = Off

; Ignore source of message when ignoring repeated messages. When this setting
; is On you will not log errors with repeated messages from different files or
; source lines.
; http://php.net/ignore-repeated-source
ignore_repeated_source = Off

; If this parameter is set to Off, then memory leaks will not be shown (on
; stdout or in the log). This has only effect in a debug compile, and if
; error reporting includes E_WARNING in the allowed list
; http://php.net/report-memleaks
report_memleaks = On

; This setting is on by default.
;report_zend_debug = 0

; Store the last error/warning message in $php_errormsg (boolean). Setting this value
; to On can assist in debugging and is appropriate for development servers. It should
; however be disabled on production servers.
; Default Value: Off
; Development Value: On
; Production Value: Off
; http://php.net/track-errors
track_errors = Off

; Turn off normal error reporting and emit XML-RPC error XML
; http://php.net/xmlrpc-errors
;xmlrpc_errors = 0

; An XML-RPC faultCode
;xmlrpc_error_number = 0

; When PHP displays or logs an error, it has the capability of inserting html
; links to documentation related to that error. This directive controls whether
; those HTML links appear in error messages or not. For performance and security
; reasons, it's recommended you disable this on production servers.
; Note: This directive is hardcoded to Off for the CLI SAPI
; Default Value: On
; Development Value: On
; Production value: Off
; http://php.net/html-errors
html_errors = Off

; If html_errors is set On PHP produces clickable error messages that direct
; to a page describing the error or function causing the error in detail.
; You can download a copy of the PHP manual from http://php.net/docs
; and change docref_root to the base URL of your local copy including the
; leading '/'. You must also specify the file extension being used including
; the dot. PHP's default behavior is to leave these settings empty.
; Note: Never use this feature for production boxes.
; http://php.net/docref-root
; Examples
;docref_root = "/phpmanual/"

; http://php.net/docref-ext
;docref_ext = .html

; String to output before an error message. PHP's default behavior is to leave
; this setting blank.
; http://php.net/error-prepend-string
; Example:
;error_prepend_string = ""

; String to output after an error message. PHP's default behavior is to leave
; this setting blank.
; http://php.net/error-append-string
; Example:
;error_append_string = ""

; Log errors to specified file. PHP's default behavior is to leave this value
; empty.
; http://php.net/error-log
; Example:
;error_log = php_errors.log
; Log errors to syslog (Event Log on NT, not valid in Windows 95).
;error_log = syslog
error_log = /var/log/php.log

;windows.show_crt_warning
; Default value: 0
; Development value: 0
; Production value: 0

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Data Handling ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; The separator used in PHP generated URLs to separate arguments.
; PHP's default setting is "&".
; http://php.net/arg-separator.output
; Example:
;arg_separator.output = "&"

; List of separator(s) used by PHP to parse input URLs into variables.
; PHP's default setting is "&".
; NOTE: Every character in this directive is considered as separator!
; http://php.net/arg-separator.input
; Example:
;arg_separator.input = ";&"

; This directive determines which super global arrays are registered when PHP
; starts up. If the register_globals directive is enabled, it also determines
; what order variables are populated into the global space. G,P,C,E & S are
; abbreviations for the following respective super globals: GET, POST, COOKIE,
; ENV and SERVER. There is a performance penalty paid for the registration of
; these arrays and because ENV is not as commonly used as the others, ENV is
; is not recommended on productions servers. You can still get access to
; the environment variables through getenv() should you need to.
; Default Value: "EGPCS"
; Development Value: "GPCS"
; Production Value: "GPCS";
; http://php.net/variables-order
variables_order = "GPCS"

; This directive determines which super global data (G,P,C,E & S) should
; be registered into the super global array REQUEST. If so, it also determines
; the order in which that data is registered. The values for this directive are
; specified in the same manner as the variables_order directive, EXCEPT one.
; Leaving this value empty will cause PHP to use the value set in the
; variables_order directive. It does not mean it will leave the super globals
; array REQUEST empty.
; Default Value: None
; Development Value: "GP"
; Production Value: "GP"
; http://php.net/request-order
request_order = "GP"

; Whether or not to register the EGPCS variables as global variables.  You may
; want to turn this off if you don't want to clutter your scripts' global scope
; with user data.
; You should do your best to write your scripts so that they do not require
; register_globals to be on;  Using form variables as globals can easily lead
; to possible security problems, if the code is not very well thought of.
; http://php.net/register-globals
register_globals = Off

; Determines whether the deprecated long $HTTP_*_VARS type predefined variables
; are registered by PHP or not. As they are deprecated, we obviously don't
; recommend you use them. They are on by default for compatibility reasons but
; they are not recommended on production servers.
; Default Value: On
; Development Value: Off
; Production Value: Off
; http://php.net/register-long-arrays
register_long_arrays = Off

; This directive determines whether PHP registers $argv & $argc each time it
; runs. $argv contains an array of all the arguments passed to PHP when a script
; is invoked. $argc contains an integer representing the number of arguments
; that were passed when the script was invoked. These arrays are extremely
; useful when running scripts from the command line. When this directive is
; enabled, registering these variables consumes CPU cycles and memory each time
; a script is executed. For performance reasons, this feature should be disabled
; on production servers.
; Note: This directive is hardcoded to On for the CLI SAPI
; Default Value: On
; Development Value: Off
; Production Value: Off
; http://php.net/register-argc-argv
register_argc_argv = Off

; When enabled, the SERVER and ENV variables are created when they're first
; used (Just In Time) instead of when the script starts. If these variables
; are not used within a script, having this directive on will result in a
; performance gain. The PHP directives register_globals, register_long_arrays,
; and register_argc_argv must be disabled for this directive to have any affect.
; http://php.net/auto-globals-jit
auto_globals_jit = On

; Maximum size of POST data that PHP will accept.
; http://php.net/post-max-size
post_max_size = 8M

; Magic quotes are a preprocessing feature of PHP where PHP will attempt to
; escape any character sequences in GET, POST, COOKIE and ENV data which might
; otherwise corrupt data being placed in resources such as databases before
; making that data available to you. Because of character encoding issues and
; non-standard SQL implementations across many databases, it's not currently
; possible for this feature to be 100% accurate. PHP's default behavior is to
; enable the feature. We strongly recommend you use the escaping mechanisms
; designed specifically for the database your using instead of relying on this
; feature. Also note, this feature has been deprecated as of PHP 5.3.0 and is
; scheduled for removal in PHP 6.
; Default Value: On
; Development Value: Off
; Production Value: Off
; http://php.net/magic-quotes-gpc
magic_quotes_gpc = Off

; Magic quotes for runtime-generated data, e.g. data from SQL, from exec(), etc.
; http://php.net/magic-quotes-runtime
magic_quotes_runtime = Off

; Use Sybase-style magic quotes (escape ' with '' instead of \').
; http://php.net/magic-quotes-sybase
magic_quotes_sybase = Off

; Automatically add files before PHP document.
; http://php.net/auto-prepend-file
auto_prepend_file =

; Automatically add files after PHP document.
; http://php.net/auto-append-file
auto_append_file =

; By default, PHP will output a character encoding using
; the Content-type: header.  To disable sending of the charset, simply
; set it to be empty.
;
; PHP's built-in default is text/html
; http://php.net/default-mimetype
default_mimetype = "text/html"

; PHP's default character set is set to empty.
; http://php.net/default-charset
;default_charset = "iso-8859-1"

; Always populate the $HTTP_RAW_POST_DATA variable. PHP's default behavior is
; to disable this feature.
; http://php.net/always-populate-raw-post-data
;always_populate_raw_post_data = On

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Paths and Directories ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; UNIX: "/path1:/path2"
;include_path = ".:/usr/share/php"
;
; Windows: "\path1;\path2"
;include_path = ".;c:\php\includes"
;
; PHP's default setting for include_path is ".;/path/to/php/pear"
; http://php.net/include-path

; The root of the PHP pages, used only if nonempty.
; if PHP was not compiled with FORCE_REDIRECT, you SHOULD set doc_root
; if you are running php as a CGI under any web server (other than IIS)
; see documentation for security issues.  The alternate is to use the
; cgi.force_redirect configuration below
; http://php.net/doc-root
doc_root =

; The directory under which PHP opens the script using /~username used only
; if nonempty.
; http://php.net/user-dir
user_dir =

; Directory in which the loadable extensions (modules) reside.
; http://php.net/extension-dir
; extension_dir = "./"
; On windows:
; extension_dir = "ext"

; Whether or not to enable the dl() function.  The dl() function does NOT work
; properly in multithreaded servers, such as IIS or Zeus, and is automatically
; disabled on them.
; http://php.net/enable-dl
enable_dl = Off

; cgi.force_redirect is necessary to provide security running PHP as a CGI under
; most web servers.  Left undefined, PHP turns this on by default.  You can
; turn it off here AT YOUR OWN RISK
; **You CAN safely turn this off for IIS, in fact, you MUST.**
; http://php.net/cgi.force-redirect
;cgi.force_redirect = 1

; if cgi.nph is enabled it will force cgi to always sent Status: 200 with
; every request. PHP's default behavior is to disable this feature.
;cgi.nph = 1

; if cgi.force_redirect is turned on, and you are not running under Apache or Netscape
; (iPlanet) web servers, you MAY need to set an environment variable name that PHP
; will look for to know it is OK to continue execution.  Setting this variable MAY
; cause security issues, KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING FIRST.
; http://php.net/cgi.redirect-status-env
;cgi.redirect_status_env = ;

; cgi.fix_pathinfo provides *real* PATH_INFO/PATH_TRANSLATED support for CGI.  PHP's
; previous behaviour was to set PATH_TRANSLATED to SCRIPT_FILENAME, and to not grok
; what PATH_INFO is.  For more information on PATH_INFO, see the cgi specs.  Setting
; this to 1 will cause PHP CGI to fix its paths to conform to the spec.  A setting
; of zero causes PHP to behave as before.  Default is 1\.  You should fix your scripts
; to use SCRIPT_FILENAME rather than PATH_TRANSLATED.
; http://php.net/cgi.fix-pathinfo
;cgi.fix_pathinfo=1

; FastCGI under IIS (on WINNT based OS) supports the ability to impersonate
; security tokens of the calling client.  This allows IIS to define the
; security context that the request runs under.  mod_fastcgi under Apache
; does not currently support this feature (03/17/2002)
; Set to 1 if running under IIS.  Default is zero.
; http://php.net/fastcgi.impersonate
;fastcgi.impersonate = 1;

; Disable logging through FastCGI connection. PHP's default behavior is to enable
; this feature.
;fastcgi.logging = 0

; cgi.rfc2616_headers configuration option tells PHP what type of headers to
; use when sending HTTP response code. If it's set 0 PHP sends Status: header that
; is supported by Apache. When this option is set to 1 PHP will send
; RFC2616 compliant header.
; Default is zero.
; http://php.net/cgi.rfc2616-headers
;cgi.rfc2616_headers = 0

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; File Uploads ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; Whether to allow HTTP file uploads.
; http://php.net/file-uploads
file_uploads = On

; Temporary directory for HTTP uploaded files (will use system default if not
; specified).
; http://php.net/upload-tmp-dir
;upload_tmp_dir =

; Maximum allowed size for uploaded files.
; http://php.net/upload-max-filesize
upload_max_filesize = 2M

; Maximum number of files that can be uploaded via a single request
max_file_uploads = 20

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Fopen wrappers ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; Whether to allow the treatment of URLs (like http:// or ftp://) as files.
; http://php.net/allow-url-fopen
allow_url_fopen = On

; Whether to allow include/require to open URLs (like http:// or ftp://) as files.
; http://php.net/allow-url-include
allow_url_include = Off

; Define the anonymous ftp password (your email address). PHP's default setting
; for this is empty.
; http://php.net/from
;from="[email protected]"

; Define the User-Agent string. PHP's default setting for this is empty.
; http://php.net/user-agent
;user_agent="PHP"

; Default timeout for socket based streams (seconds)
; http://php.net/default-socket-timeout
default_socket_timeout = 60

; If your scripts have to deal with files from Macintosh systems,
; or you are running on a Mac and need to deal with files from
; unix or win32 systems, setting this flag will cause PHP to
; automatically detect the EOL character in those files so that
; fgets() and file() will work regardless of the source of the file.
; http://php.net/auto-detect-line-endings
;auto_detect_line_endings = Off

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Dynamic Extensions ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

; If you wish to have an extension loaded automatically, use the following
; syntax:
;
;   extension=modulename.extension
;
; For example, on Windows:
;
;   extension=msql.dll
;
; ... or under UNIX:
;
;   extension=msql.so
;
; ... or with a path:
;
;   extension=/path/to/extension/msql.so
;
; If you only provide the name of the extension, PHP will look for it in its
; default extension directory.

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; Module Settings ;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

[Date]
; Defines the default timezone used by the date functions
; http://php.net/date.timezone
;date.timezone =

; http://php.net/date.default-latitude
;date.default_latitude = 31.7667

; http://php.net/date.default-longitude
;date.default_longitude = 35.2333

; http://php.net/date.sunrise-zenith
;date.sunrise_zenith = 90.583333

; http://php.net/date.sunset-zenith
;date.sunset_zenith = 90.583333

[filter]
; http://php.net/filter.default
;filter.default = unsafe_raw

; http://php.net/filter.default-flags
;filter.default_flags =

[iconv]
;iconv.input_encoding = ISO-8859-1
;iconv.internal_encoding = ISO-8859-1
;iconv.output_encoding = ISO-8859-1

[intl]
;intl.default_locale =
; This directive allows you to produce PHP errors when some error
; happens within intl functions. The value is the level of the error produced.
; Default is 0, which does not produce any errors.
;intl.error_level = E_WARNING

[sqlite]
; http://php.net/sqlite.assoc-case
;sqlite.assoc_case = 0

[sqlite3]
;sqlite3.extension_dir =

[Pcre]
;PCRE library backtracking limit.
; http://php.net/pcre.backtrack-limit
;pcre.backtrack_limit=100000

;PCRE library recursion limit.
;Please note that if you set this value to a high number you may consume all
;the available process stack and eventually crash PHP (due to reaching the
;stack size limit imposed by the Operating System).
; http://php.net/pcre.recursion-limit
;pcre.recursion_limit=100000

[Pdo]
; Whether to pool ODBC connections. Can be one of "strict", "relaxed" or "off"
; http://php.net/pdo-odbc.connection-pooling
;pdo_odbc.connection_pooling=strict

;pdo_odbc.db2_instance_name

[Pdo_mysql]
; If mysqlnd is used: Number of cache slots for the internal result set cache
; http://php.net/pdo_mysql.cache_size
pdo_mysql.cache_size = 2000

; Default socket name for local MySQL connects.  If empty, uses the built-in
; MySQL defaults.
; http://php.net/pdo_mysql.default-socket
pdo_mysql.default_socket=

[Phar]
; http://php.net/phar.readonly
;phar.readonly = On

; http://php.net/phar.require-hash
;phar.require_hash = On

;phar.cache_list =

[Syslog]
; Whether or not to define the various syslog variables (e.g. $LOG_PID,
; $LOG_CRON, etc.).  Turning it off is a good idea performance-wise.  In
; runtime, you can define these variables by calling define_syslog_variables().
; http://php.net/define-syslog-variables
define_syslog_variables  = Off

[mail function]
; For Win32 only.
; http://php.net/smtp
SMTP = localhost
; http://php.net/smtp-port
smtp_port = 25

; For Win32 only.
; http://php.net/sendmail-from
;sendmail_from = [email protected]

; For Unix only.  You may supply arguments as well (default: "sendmail -t -i").
; http://php.net/sendmail-path
;sendmail_path =

; Force the addition of the specified parameters to be passed as extra parameters
; to the sendmail binary. These parameters will always replace the value of
; the 5th parameter to mail(), even in safe mode.
;mail.force_extra_parameters =

; Add X-PHP-Originating-Script: that will include uid of the script followed by the filename
mail.add_x_header = On

; The path to a log file that will log all mail() calls. Log entries include
; the full path of the script, line number, To address and headers.
;mail.log =

[SQL]
; http://php.net/sql.safe-mode
sql.safe_mode = Off

[ODBC]
; http://php.net/odbc.default-db
;odbc.default_db    =  Not yet implemented

; http://php.net/odbc.default-user
;odbc.default_user  =  Not yet implemented

; http://php.net/odbc.default-pw
;odbc.default_pw    =  Not yet implemented

; Controls the ODBC cursor model.
; Default: SQL_CURSOR_STATIC (default).
;odbc.default_cursortype

; Allow or prevent persistent links.
; http://php.net/odbc.allow-persistent
odbc.allow_persistent = On

; Check that a connection is still valid before reuse.
; http://php.net/odbc.check-persistent
odbc.check_persistent = On

; Maximum number of persistent links.  -1 means no limit.
; http://php.net/odbc.max-persistent
odbc.max_persistent = -1

; Maximum number of links (persistent + non-persistent).  -1 means no limit.
; http://php.net/odbc.max-links
odbc.max_links = -1

; Handling of LONG fields.  Returns number of bytes to variables.  0 means
; passthru.
; http://php.net/odbc.defaultlrl
odbc.defaultlrl = 4096

; Handling of binary data.  0 means passthru, 1 return as is, 2 convert to char.
; See the documentation on odbc_binmode and odbc_longreadlen for an explanation
; of odbc.defaultlrl and odbc.defaultbinmode
; http://php.net/odbc.defaultbinmode
odbc.defaultbinmode = 1

;birdstep.max_links = -1

[Interbase]
; Allow or prevent persistent links.
ibase.allow_persistent = 1

; Maximum number of persistent links.  -1 means no limit.
ibase.max_persistent = -1

; Maximum number of links (persistent + non-persistent).  -1 means no limit.
ibase.max_links = -1

; Default database name for ibase_connect().
;ibase.default_db =

; Default username for ibase_connect().
;ibase.default_user =

; Default password for ibase_connect().
;ibase.default_password =

; Default charset for ibase_connect().
;ibase.default_charset =

; Default timestamp format.
ibase.timestampformat = "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"

; Default date format.
ibase.dateformat = "%Y-%m-%d"

; Default time format.
ibase.timeformat = "%H:%M:%S"

[MySQL]
; Allow accessing, from PHP's perspective, local files with LOAD DATA statements
; http://php.net/mysql.allow_local_infile
mysql.allow_local_infile = On

; Allow or prevent persistent links.
; http://php.net/mysql.allow-persistent
mysql.allow_persistent = On

; If mysqlnd is used: Number of cache slots for the internal result set cache
; http://php.net/mysql.cache_size
mysql.cache_size = 2000

; Maximum number of persistent links.  -1 means no limit.
; http://php.net/mysql.max-persistent
mysql.max_persistent = -1

; Maximum number of links (persistent + non-persistent).  -1 means no limit.
; http://php.net/mysql.max-links
mysql.max_links = -1

; Default port number for mysql_connect().  If unset, mysql_connect() will use
; the $MYSQL_TCP_PORT or the mysql-tcp entry in /etc/services or the
; compile-time value defined MYSQL_PORT (in that order).  Win32 will only look
; at MYSQL_PORT.
; http://php.net/mysql.default-port
mysql.default_port =

; Default socket name for local MySQL connects.  If empty, uses the built-in
; MySQL defaults.
; http://php.net/mysql.default-socket
mysql.default_socket =

; Default host for mysql_connect() (doesn't apply in safe mode).
; http://php.net/mysql.default-host
mysql.default_host =

; Default user for mysql_connect() (doesn't apply in safe mode).
; http://php.net/mysql.default-user
mysql.default_user =

; Default password for mysql_connect() (doesn't apply in safe mode).
; Note that this is generally a *bad* idea to store passwords in this file.
; *Any* user with PHP access can run 'echo get_cfg_var("mysql.default_password")
; and reveal this password!  And of course, any users with read access to this
; file will be able to reveal the password as well.
; http://php.net/mysql.default-password
mysql.default_password =

; Maximum time (in seconds) for connect timeout. -1 means no limit
; http://php.net/mysql.connect-timeout
mysql.connect_timeout = 60

; Trace mode. When trace_mode is active (=On), warnings for table/index scans and
; SQL-Errors will be displayed.
; http://php.net/mysql.trace-mode
mysql.trace_mode = Off

[MySQLi]

; Maximum number of persistent links.  -1 means no limit.
; http://php.net/mysqli.max-persistent
mysqli.max_persistent = -1

; Allow accessing, from PHP's perspective, local files with LOAD DATA statements
; http://php.net/mysqli.allow_local_infile
;mysqli.allow_local_infile = On

; Allow or prevent persistent links.
; http://php.net/mysqli.allow-persistent
mysqli.allow_persistent = On

; Maximum number of links.  -1 means no limit.
; http://php.net/mysqli.max-links
mysqli.max_links = -1

; If mysqlnd is used: Number of cache slots for the internal result set cache
; http://php.net/mysqli.cache_size
mysqli.cache_size = 2000

; Default port number for mysqli_connect().  If unset, mysqli_connect() will use
; the $MYSQL_TCP_PORT or the mysql-tcp entry in /etc/services or the
; compile-time value defined MYSQL_PORT (in that order).  Win32 will only look
; at MYSQL_PORT.
; http://php.net/mysqli.default-port
mysqli.default_port = 3306

; Default socket name for local MySQL connects.  If empty, uses the built-in
; MySQL defaults.
; http://php.net/mysqli.default-socket
mysqli.default_socket =

; Default host for mysql_connect() (doesn't apply in safe mode).
; http://php.net/mysqli.default-host
mysqli.default_host =

; Default user for mysql_connect() (doesn't apply in safe mode).
; http://php.net/mysqli.default-user
mysqli.default_user =

; Default password for mysqli_connect() (doesn't apply in safe mode).
; Note that this is generally a *bad* idea to store passwords in this file.
; *Any* user with PHP access can run 'echo get_cfg_var("mysqli.default_pw")
; and reveal this password!  And of course, any users with read access to this
; file will be able to reveal the password as well.
; http://php.net/mysqli.default-pw
mysqli.default_pw =

; Allow or prevent reconnect
mysqli.reconnect = Off

[mysqlnd]
; Enable / Disable collection of general statistics by mysqlnd which can be
; used to tune and monitor MySQL operations.
; http://php.net/mysqlnd.collect_statistics
mysqlnd.collect_statistics = On

; Enable / Disable collection of memory usage statistics by mysqlnd which can be
; used to tune and monitor MySQL operations.
; http://php.net/mysqlnd.collect_memory_statistics
mysqlnd.collect_memory_statistics = Off

; Size of a pre-allocated buffer used when sending commands to MySQL in bytes.
; http://php.net/mysqlnd.net_cmd_buffer_size
;mysqlnd.net_cmd_buffer_size = 2048

; Size of a pre-allocated buffer used for reading data sent by the server in
; bytes.
; http://php.net/mysqlnd.net_read_buffer_size
;mysqlnd.net_read_buffer_size = 32768

[OCI8]

; Connection: Enables privileged connections using external
; credentials (OCI_SYSOPER, OCI_SYSDBA)
; http://php.net/oci8.privileged-connect
;oci8.privileged_connect = Off

; Connection: The maximum number of persistent OCI8 connections per
; process. Using -1 means no limit.
; http://php.net/oci8.max-persistent
;oci8.max_persistent = -1

; Connection: The maximum number of seconds a process is allowed to
; maintain an idle persistent connection. Using -1 means idle
; persistent connections will be maintained forever.
; http://php.net/oci8.persistent-timeout
;oci8.persistent_timeout = -1

; Connection: The number of seconds that must pass before issuing a
; ping during oci_pconnect() to check the connection validity. When
; set to 0, each oci_pconnect() will cause a ping. Using -1 disables
; pings completely.
; http://php.net/oci8.ping-interval
;oci8.ping_interval = 60

; Connection: Set this to a user chosen connection class to be used
; for all pooled server requests with Oracle 11g Database Resident
; Connection Pooling (DRCP).  To use DRCP, this value should be set to
; the same string for all web servers running the same application,
; the database pool must be configured, and the connection string must
; specify to use a pooled server.
;oci8.connection_class =

; High Availability: Using On lets PHP receive Fast Application
; Notification (FAN) events generated when a database node fails. The
; database must also be configured to post FAN events.
;oci8.events = Off

; Tuning: This option enables statement caching, and specifies how
; many statements to cache. Using 0 disables statement caching.
; http://php.net/oci8.statement-cache-size
;oci8.statement_cache_size = 20

; Tuning: Enables statement prefetching and sets the default number of
; rows that will be fetched automatically after statement execution.
; http://php.net/oci8.default-prefetch
;oci8.default_prefetch = 100

; Compatibility. Using On means oci_close() will not close
; oci_connect() and oci_new_connect() connections.
; http://php.net/oci8.old-oci-close-semantics
;oci8.old_oci_close_semantics = Off

[PostgreSQL]
; Allow or prevent persistent links.
; http://php.net/pgsql.allow-persistent
pgsql.allow_persistent = On

; Detect broken persistent links always with pg_pconnect().
; Auto reset feature requires a little overheads.
; http://php.net/pgsql.auto-reset-persistent
pgsql.auto_reset_persistent = Off

; Maximum number of persistent links.  -1 means no limit.
; http://php.net/pgsql.max-persistent
pgsql.max_persistent = -1

; Maximum number of links (persistent+non persistent).  -1 means no limit.
; http://php.net/pgsql.max-links
pgsql.max_links = -1

; Ignore PostgreSQL backends Notice message or not.
; Notice message logging require a little overheads.
; http://php.net/pgsql.ignore-notice
pgsql.ignore_notice = 0

; Log PostgreSQL backends Notice message or not.
; Unless pgsql.ignore_notice=0, module cannot log notice message.
; http://php.net/pgsql.log-notice
pgsql.log_notice = 0

[Sybase-CT]
; Allow or prevent persistent links.
; http://php.net/sybct.allow-persistent
sybct.allow_persistent = On

; Maximum number of persistent links.  -1 means no limit.
; http://php.net/sybct.max-persistent
sybct.max_persistent = -1

; Maximum number of links (persistent + non-persistent).  -1 means no limit.
; http://php.net/sybct.max-links
sybct.max_links = -1

; Minimum server message severity to display.
; http://php.net/sybct.min-server-severity
sybct.min_server_severity = 10

; Minimum client message severity to display.
; http://php.net/sybct.min-client-severity
sybct.min_client_severity = 10

; Set per-context timeout
; http://php.net/sybct.timeout
;sybct.timeout=

;sybct.packet_size

; The maximum time in seconds to wait for a connection attempt to succeed before returning failure.
; Default: one minute
;sybct.login_timeout=

; The name of the host you claim to be connecting from, for display by sp_who.
; Default: none
;sybct.hostname=

; Allows you to define how often deadlocks are to be retried. -1 means "forever".
; Default: 0
;sybct.deadlock_retry_count=

[bcmath]
; Number of decimal digits for all bcmath functions.
; http://php.net/bcmath.scale
bcmath.scale = 0

[browscap]
; http://php.net/browscap
;browscap = extra/browscap.ini

[Session]
; Handler used to store/retrieve data.
; http://php.net/session.save-handler
session.save_handler = files

; Argument passed to save_handler.  In the case of files, this is the path
; where data files are stored. Note: Windows users have to change this
; variable in order to use PHP's session functions.
;
; The path can be defined as:
;
;     session.save_path = "N;/path"
;
; where N is an integer.  Instead of storing all the session files in
; /path, what this will do is use subdirectories N-levels deep, and
; store the session data in those directories.  This is useful if you
; or your OS have problems with lots of files in one directory, and is
; a more efficient layout for servers that handle lots of sessions.
;
; NOTE 1: PHP will not create this directory structure automatically.
;         You can use the script in the ext/session dir for that purpose.
; NOTE 2: See the section on garbage collection below if you choose to
;         use subdirectories for session storage
;
; The file storage module creates files using mode 600 by default.
; You can change that by using
;
;     session.save_path = "N;MODE;/path"
;
; where MODE is the octal representation of the mode. Note that this
; does not overwrite the process's umask.
; http://php.net/session.save-path
;session.save_path = "/tmp"

; Whether to use cookies.
; http://php.net/session.use-cookies
session.use_cookies = 1

; http://php.net/session.cookie-secure
;session.cookie_secure =

; This option forces PHP to fetch and use a cookie for storing and maintaining
; the session id. We encourage this operation as it's very helpful in combatting
; session hijacking when not specifying and managing your own session id. It is
; not the end all be all of session hijacking defense, but it's a good start.
; http://php.net/session.use-only-cookies
session.use_only_cookies = 1

; Name of the session (used as cookie name).
; http://php.net/session.name
session.name = PHPSESSID

; Initialize session on request startup.
; http://php.net/session.auto-start
session.auto_start = 0

; Lifetime in seconds of cookie or, if 0, until browser is restarted.
; http://php.net/session.cookie-lifetime
session.cookie_lifetime = 0

; The path for which the cookie is valid.
; http://php.net/session.cookie-path
session.cookie_path = /

; The domain for which the cookie is valid.
; http://php.net/session.cookie-domain
session.cookie_domain =

; Whether or not to add the httpOnly flag to the cookie, which makes it inaccessible to browser scripting languages such as JavaScript.
; http://php.net/session.cookie-httponly
session.cookie_httponly =

; Handler used to serialize data.  php is the standard serializer of PHP.
; http://php.net/session.serialize-handler
session.serialize_handler = php

; Defines the probability that the 'garbage collection' process is started
; on every session initialization. The probability is calculated by using
; gc_probability/gc_divisor. Where session.gc_probability is the numerator
; and gc_divisor is the denominator in the equation. Setting this value to 1
; when the session.gc_divisor value is 100 will give you approximately a 1% chance
; the gc will run on any give request.
; Default Value: 1
; Development Value: 1
; Production Value: 1
; http://php.net/session.gc-probability
session.gc_probability = 0

; Defines the probability that the 'garbage collection' process is started on every
; session initialization. The probability is calculated by using the following equation:
; gc_probability/gc_divisor. Where session.gc_probability is the numerator and
; session.gc_divisor is the denominator in the equation. Setting this value to 1
; when the session.gc_divisor value is 100 will give you approximately a 1% chance
; the gc will run on any give request. Increasing this value to 1000 will give you
; a 0.1% chance the gc will run on any give request. For high volume production servers,
; this is a more efficient approach.
; Default Value: 100
; Development Value: 1000
; Production Value: 1000
; http://php.net/session.gc-divisor
session.gc_divisor = 1000

; After this number of seconds, stored data will be seen as 'garbage' and
; cleaned up by the garbage collection process.
; http://php.net/session.gc-maxlifetime
session.gc_maxlifetime = 1440

; NOTE: If you are using the subdirectory option for storing session files
;       (see session.save_path above), then garbage collection does *not*
;       happen automatically.  You will need to do your own garbage
;       collection through a shell script, cron entry, or some other method.
;       For example, the following script would is the equivalent of
;       setting session.gc_maxlifetime to 1440 (1440 seconds = 24 minutes):
;          find /path/to/sessions -cmin +24 | xargs rm

; PHP 4.2 and less have an undocumented feature/bug that allows you to
; to initialize a session variable in the global scope, even when register_globals
; is disabled.  PHP 4.3 and later will warn you, if this feature is used.
; You can disable the feature and the warning separately. At this time,
; the warning is only displayed, if bug_compat_42 is enabled. This feature
; introduces some serious security problems if not handled correctly. It's
; recommended that you do not use this feature on production servers. But you
; should enable this on development servers and enable the warning as well. If you
; do not enable the feature on development servers, you won't be warned when it's
; used and debugging errors caused by this can be difficult to track down.
; Default Value: On
; Development Value: On
; Production Value: Off
; http://php.net/session.bug-compat-42
session.bug_compat_42 = Off

; This setting controls whether or not you are warned by PHP when initializing a
; session value into the global space. session.bug_compat_42 must be enabled before
; these warnings can be issued by PHP. See the directive above for more information.
; Default Value: On
; Development Value: On
; Production Value: Off
; http://php.net/session.bug-compat-warn
session.bug_compat_warn = Off

; Check HTTP Referer to invalidate externally stored URLs containing ids.
; HTTP_REFERER has to contain this substring for the session to be
; considered as valid.
; http://php.net/session.referer-check
session.referer_check =

; How many bytes to read from the file.
; http://php.net/session.entropy-length
session.entropy_length = 0

; Specified here to create the session id.
; http://php.net/session.entropy-file
; On systems that don't have /dev/urandom /dev/arandom can be used
; On windows, setting the entropy_length setting will activate the 
; Windows random source (using the CryptoAPI)
;session.entropy_file = /dev/urandom

; Set to {nocache,private,public,} to determine HTTP caching aspects
; or leave this empty to avoid sending anti-caching headers.
; http://php.net/session.cache-limiter
session.cache_limiter = nocache

; Document expires after n minutes.
; http://php.net/session.cache-expire
session.cache_expire = 180

; trans sid support is disabled by default.
; Use of trans sid may risk your users security.
; Use this option with caution.
; - User may send URL contains active session ID
;   to other person via. email/irc/etc.
; - URL that contains active session ID may be stored
;   in publically accessible computer.
; - User may access your site with the same session ID
;   always using URL stored in browser's history or bookmarks.
; http://php.net/session.use-trans-sid
session.use_trans_sid = 0

; Select a hash function for use in generating session ids.
; Possible Values
;   0  (MD5 128 bits)
;   1  (SHA-1 160 bits)
; This option may also be set to the name of any hash function supported by
; the hash extension. A list of available hashes is returned by the hash_algos()
; function.
; http://php.net/session.hash-function
session.hash_function = 0

; Define how many bits are stored in each character when converting
; the binary hash data to something readable.
; Possible values:
;   4  (4 bits: 0-9, a-f)
;   5  (5 bits: 0-9, a-v)
;   6  (6 bits: 0-9, a-z, A-Z, "-", ",")
; Default Value: 4
; Development Value: 5
; Production Value: 5
; http://php.net/session.hash-bits-per-character
session.hash_bits_per_character = 5

; The URL rewriter will look for URLs in a defined set of HTML tags.
; form/fieldset are special; if you include them here, the rewriter will
; add a hidden  field with the info which is otherwise appended
; to URLs.  If you want XHTML conformity, remove the form entry.
; Note that all valid entries require a "=", even if no value follows.
; Default Value: "a=href,area=href,frame=src,form=,fieldset="
; Development Value: "a=href,area=href,frame=src,input=src,form=fakeentry"
; Production Value: "a=href,area=href,frame=src,input=src,form=fakeentry"
; http://php.net/url-rewriter.tags
url_rewriter.tags = "a=href,area=href,frame=src,input=src,form=fakeentry"

[MSSQL]
; Allow or prevent persistent links.
mssql.allow_persistent = On

; Maximum number of persistent links.  -1 means no limit.
mssql.max_persistent = -1

; Maximum number of links (persistent+non persistent).  -1 means no limit.
mssql.max_links = -1

; Minimum error severity to display.
mssql.min_error_severity = 10

; Minimum message severity to display.
mssql.min_message_severity = 10

; Compatibility mode with old versions of PHP 3.0.
mssql.compatability_mode = Off

; Connect timeout
;mssql.connect_timeout = 5

; Query timeout
;mssql.timeout = 60

; Valid range 0 - 2147483647\.  Default = 4096.
;mssql.textlimit = 4096

; Valid range 0 - 2147483647\.  Default = 4096.
;mssql.textsize = 4096

; Limits the number of records in each batch.  0 = all records in one batch.
;mssql.batchsize = 0

; Specify how datetime and datetim4 columns are returned
; On => Returns data converted to SQL server settings
; Off => Returns values as YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss
;mssql.datetimeconvert = On

; Use NT authentication when connecting to the server
mssql.secure_connection = Off

; Specify max number of processes. -1 = library default
; msdlib defaults to 25
; FreeTDS defaults to 4096
;mssql.max_procs = -1

; Specify client character set.
; If empty or not set the client charset from freetds.conf is used
; This is only used when compiled with FreeTDS
;mssql.charset = "ISO-8859-1"

[Assertion]
; Assert(expr); active by default.
; http://php.net/assert.active
;assert.active = On

; Issue a PHP warning for each failed assertion.
; http://php.net/assert.warning
;assert.warning = On

; Don't bail out by default.
; http://php.net/assert.bail
;assert.bail = Off

; User-function to be called if an assertion fails.
; http://php.net/assert.callback
;assert.callback = 0

; Eval the expression with current error_reporting().  Set to true if you want
; error_reporting(0) around the eval().
; http://php.net/assert.quiet-eval
;assert.quiet_eval = 0

[COM]
; path to a file containing GUIDs, IIDs or filenames of files with TypeLibs
; http://php.net/com.typelib-file
;com.typelib_file =

; allow Distributed-COM calls
; http://php.net/com.allow-dcom
;com.allow_dcom = true

; autoregister constants of a components typlib on com_load()
; http://php.net/com.autoregister-typelib
;com.autoregister_typelib = true

; register constants casesensitive
; http://php.net/com.autoregister-casesensitive
;com.autoregister_casesensitive = false

; show warnings on duplicate constant registrations
; http://php.net/com.autoregister-verbose
;com.autoregister_verbose = true

; The default character set code-page to use when passing strings to and from COM objects.
; Default: system ANSI code page
;com.code_page=

[mbstring]
; language for internal character representation.
; http://php.net/mbstring.language
;mbstring.language = Japanese

; internal/script encoding.
; Some encoding cannot work as internal encoding.
; (e.g. SJIS, BIG5, ISO-2022-*)
; http://php.net/mbstring.internal-encoding
;mbstring.internal_encoding = EUC-JP

; http input encoding.
; http://php.net/mbstring.http-input
;mbstring.http_input = auto

; http output encoding. mb_output_handler must be
; registered as output buffer to function
; http://php.net/mbstring.http-output
;mbstring.http_output = SJIS

; enable automatic encoding translation according to
; mbstring.internal_encoding setting. Input chars are
; converted to internal encoding by setting this to On.
; Note: Do _not_ use automatic encoding translation for
;       portable libs/applications.
; http://php.net/mbstring.encoding-translation
;mbstring.encoding_translation = Off

; automatic encoding detection order.
; auto means
; http://php.net/mbstring.detect-order
;mbstring.detect_order = auto

; substitute_character used when character cannot be converted
; one from another
; http://php.net/mbstring.substitute-character
;mbstring.substitute_character = none;

; overload(replace) single byte functions by mbstring functions.
; mail(), ereg(), etc are overloaded by mb_send_mail(), mb_ereg(),
; etc. Possible values are 0,1,2,4 or combination of them.
; For example, 7 for overload everything.
; 0: No overload
; 1: Overload mail() function
; 2: Overload str*() functions
; 4: Overload ereg*() functions
; http://php.net/mbstring.func-overload
;mbstring.func_overload = 0

; enable strict encoding detection.
;mbstring.strict_detection = Off

; This directive specifies the regex pattern of content types for which mb_output_handler()
; is activated.
; Default: mbstring.http_output_conv_mimetype=^(text/|application/xhtml\+xml)
;mbstring.http_output_conv_mimetype=

; Allows to set script encoding. Only affects if PHP is compiled with --enable-zend-multibyte
; Default: ""
;mbstring.script_encoding=

[gd]
; Tell the jpeg decode to ignore warnings and try to create
; a gd image. The warning will then be displayed as notices
; disabled by default
; http://php.net/gd.jpeg-ignore-warning
;gd.jpeg_ignore_warning = 0

[exif]
; Exif UNICODE user comments are handled as UCS-2BE/UCS-2LE and JIS as JIS.
; With mbstring support this will automatically be converted into the encoding
; given by corresponding encode setting. When empty mbstring.internal_encoding
; is used. For the decode settings you can distinguish between motorola and
; intel byte order. A decode setting cannot be empty.
; http://php.net/exif.encode-unicode
;exif.encode_unicode = ISO-8859-15

; http://php.net/exif.decode-unicode-motorola
;exif.decode_unicode_motorola = UCS-2BE

; http://php.net/exif.decode-unicode-intel
;exif.decode_unicode_intel    = UCS-2LE

; http://php.net/exif.encode-jis
;exif.encode_jis =

; http://php.net/exif.decode-jis-motorola
;exif.decode_jis_motorola = JIS

; http://php.net/exif.decode-jis-intel
;exif.decode_jis_intel    = JIS

[Tidy]
; The path to a default tidy configuration file to use when using tidy
; http://php.net/tidy.default-config
;tidy.default_config = /usr/local/lib/php/default.tcfg

; Should tidy clean and repair output automatically?
; WARNING: Do not use this option if you are generating non-html content
; such as dynamic images
; http://php.net/tidy.clean-output
tidy.clean_output = Off

[soap]
; Enables or disables WSDL caching feature.
; http://php.net/soap.wsdl-cache-enabled
soap.wsdl_cache_enabled=1

; Sets the directory name where SOAP extension will put cache files.
; http://php.net/soap.wsdl-cache-dir
soap.wsdl_cache_dir="/tmp"

; (time to live) Sets the number of second while cached file will be used
; instead of original one.
; http://php.net/soap.wsdl-cache-ttl
soap.wsdl_cache_ttl=86400

; Sets the size of the cache limit. (Max. number of WSDL files to cache)
soap.wsdl_cache_limit = 5

[sysvshm]
; A default size of the shared memory segment
;sysvshm.init_mem = 10000

[ldap]
; Sets the maximum number of open links or -1 for unlimited.
ldap.max_links = -1

[mcrypt]
; For more information about mcrypt settings see http://php.net/mcrypt-module-open

; Directory where to load mcrypt algorithms
; Default: Compiled in into libmcrypt (usually /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt)
;mcrypt.algorithms_dir=

; Directory where to load mcrypt modes
; Default: Compiled in into libmcrypt (usually /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt)
;mcrypt.modes_dir=

[dba]
;dba.default_handler=

[xsl]
; Write operations from within XSLT are disabled by default.
; XSL_SECPREF_CREATE_DIRECTORY | XSL_SECPREF_WRITE_NETWORK | XSL_SECPREF_WRITE_FILE = 44
; Set it to 0 to allow all operations
;xsl.security_prefs = 44

; Local Variables:
; tab-width: 4
; End:` 

[/php]

Search the forum for Wordpress; there are quite a number of threads discussing how to reduce its memory usage.

As I recall, typical advice seems to be 1) see if some plugins cause high memory usage and remove those, 2) use a caching plugin, and 3) move away from Apache prefork to Apache event with modproxyfcgi (2.4 only) or Nginx.

If you want more specific directions on how to accomplish any of those, you'll need to say what operating system and version you are using.

In the meantime, you can try further reducing MaxClients and/or MaxRequestsPerChild. Others might have more PHP or Wordpress tweaks to suggest.

If you don't fancy getting rid of Apache altogether and going full nginx, you could try adding nginx as a reverse proxy. I switched to this setup on my Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Linode 1.5GB a while back and it works great. I have two WordPress multisite installs hosting numerous websites, plus six more individual WordPress installs and a few of other pieces of software (ownCloud, FusionInvoice etc) and it purrs along with no issues whatsoever. I also host podcast mp3s that get downloaded a couple thousand times per episode. Traffic to the sites tends to come in bursts (busiest is http://www.chelseafcblog.com/) as do the podcast downloads, and my Linode hardly breaks sweat (it's using the 'old' CPU, too). Average RAM usage is 40% and there's minimal swap usage. The only time I see any significant CPU usage is during backups (WordPress Backup to Dropbox and xCloner plugins, s3cmd tool etc). I have APC and Memcached installed, and use the W3 Total Cache plugin on all WordPress sites. You want to cache as much as you can.

Here's a good guide to setting up nginx as a reverse proxy:

~~[http://www.openlogic.com/wazi/bid/188107/Add-a-Nginx-Reverse-Proxy-to-Your-LAMP-Setup" target="_blank">](http://www.openlogic.com/wazi/bid/18810 … LAMP-Setup">http://www.openlogic.com/wazi/bid/188107/Add-a-Nginx-Reverse-Proxy-to-Your-LAMP-Setup](

It's easy to set up and will help with Apache memory usage.

Relevant bits of my apache.conf file:

#
# KeepAlive: Whether or not to allow persistent connections (more than
# one request per connection). Set to "Off" to deactivate.
#
KeepAlive Off

[...]

##
## Server-Pool Size Regulation (MPM specific)
## 

# prefork MPM
# StartServers: number of server processes to start
# MinSpareServers: minimum number of server processes which are kept spare
# MaxSpareServers: maximum number of server processes which are kept spare
# MaxClients: maximum number of server processes allowed to start
# MaxRequestsPerChild: maximum number of requests a server process serves
 <ifmodule mpm_prefork_module="">StartServers 1
    MinSpareServers 2
    MaxSpareServers 3
    ServerLimit 24
    MaxClients 24
    MaxRequestsPerChild 3000</ifmodule> 

And nginx.conf file…

user www-data; # change to the same user Apache runs as
worker_processes 8; # change to the number of your CPUs/cores
worker_rlimit_nofile 8192;

error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /var/run/nginx.pid;

events {
  worker_connections 1024;
  use epoll;
  accept_mutex off;
}

http {
  server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
  include /etc/nginx/mime.types;
  default_type application/octet-stream;
  access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log;
  sendfile on;
  tcp_nopush on;
  keepalive_timeout 65;

  # reverse proxy options
  proxy_redirect off;
  proxy_set_header Host $host;
  proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
  proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

  proxy_connect_timeout 1800;
  proxy_send_timeout 1800;
  proxy_read_timeout 1800;
  send_timeout 1800;

  # gzip compression options
  gzip on;
  gzip_http_version 1.0;
  gzip_comp_level 6;
  gzip_min_length 0;
  gzip_buffers 16 8k;
  gzip_proxied any;
  gzip_types text/plain text/css text/xml text/javascript application/xml application/xml+rss application/javascript application/json;
  gzip_disable "MSIE [1-6]\.";
  gzip_vary on;

  # include virtual hosts configuration
  # include /etc/nginx/virtual.d/*.conf;
  include /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*;
}

@Vance:

Search the forum for Wordpress; there are quite a number of threads discussing how to reduce its memory usage.

As I recall, typical advice seems to be 1) see if some plugins cause high memory usage and remove those, 2) use a caching plugin, and 3) move away from Apache prefork to Apache event with modproxyfcgi (2.4 only) or Nginx.

If you want more specific directions on how to accomplish any of those, you'll need to say what operating system and version you are using.

In the meantime, you can try further reducing MaxClients and/or MaxRequestsPerChild. Others might have more PHP or Wordpress tweaks to suggest.

Thanks for your help.

I disabled all plugins but nothing has changed. It's Ubuntu 12.04 LTS.

How can i move away from Apache prefork to Apache event with modproxyfcgi (2.4 only)?

@indeepblue:

@Vance:

Search the forum for Wordpress; there are quite a number of threads discussing how to reduce its memory usage.

As I recall, typical advice seems to be 1) see if some plugins cause high memory usage and remove those, 2) use a caching plugin, and 3) move away from Apache prefork to Apache event with modproxyfcgi (2.4 only) or Nginx.

If you want more specific directions on how to accomplish any of those, you'll need to say what operating system and version you are using.

In the meantime, you can try further reducing MaxClients and/or MaxRequestsPerChild. Others might have more PHP or Wordpress tweaks to suggest.

Thanks for your help.

I disabled all plugins but nothing has changed. It's Ubuntu 12.04 LTS.

How can i move away from Apache prefork to Apache event with modproxyfcgi (2.4 only)?

Ubuntu 13.10 shipped with Apache 2.4, I believe, so you could upgrade Ubuntu (I wouldn't recommend this option). Or you could upgrade Apache on 12.04 LTS from 2.2.22 to 2.4 (again, I wouldn't recommend this option, either - 2.2.22 will continue to get security updates etc via the official repository, 2.4 wouldn't on 12.04 LTS).

I would try the nginx as reverse proxy option I talked about above before either of the above two options - it's relatively easy to do and much less could go wrong.

nicholasmark seems to have good suggestions. Upgrading your Apache to 2.4 is probably too difficult to bother - the reverse proxy idea sounds good. I'm not very familiar with Wordpress, so there's nothing more I can say.

On my system right now, I have 24 apache workers, each with a nominal RSS size of ~100MB. If you just add them all together, you'd conclude that I have 2.4 GB of apache processes + 250MB of mySQL on a 1GB Linode, Oh NOES!! But here is the thing, 'free' reports that I've got 50MB free, 14MB of buffers, and 276MB of disk cache, and I'm only using 40MB of swap. That doesn't add up.

The thing is, the RSS size of apache workers with mod_php generally includes a lot of shared memory. Using a script that tries to estimate the actual memory size of multi-process daemons suggests that apache is using something closer to 390MB, with 100MB of that shared, and about 290MB distributed amongst the individual processes, which only works out to about 12MB of dedicated memory per worker.

So, bottom line, your problem probably isn't apache at all (at least not from the evidence you've shared). The nginx reverse proxy is still worthwhile to do, eventually.

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